What is mega-dimensionality? Who needs it and for what purpose? First we have to ask ourselves why we need dimensionality at all. Of course, the visual arts, crafts, science and engineering could not exist without it. In mathematics, for example, the concept of dimensional analysis uses physical quantities (mass, length-width-depth, and/or time) to draw inferences about the relations between these factors. Yet whatever the field of inquiry, everyone—whether child or adult—uses dimensionality in one way or another to make sense out of the world we live in.
Common ideas concerning our physical environment can be explained in a three- and four-dimensional time-space formulation, a construct that has since ancient times assisted us in conceptualizing the universe. Scientifically, the concept of dimensionality began to take shape around 300 BC with Euclidian geometry and culminated in the early part of the 20th century with Einstein’s relativity theory, which unified time and space and mass with energy. Later on in the 20th century, a paradigm shift with monumental implications occurred. Einstein’s predictable (“God does not play dice”) universe, including Max Plank’s quantum theory, was advanced and challenged by Heisenberg’s quantum mechanics that led to his uncertainty principle. By the end of the 20th century, string theory attempted to reconcile these opposing ideas by claiming to have a theory about everything. But “everything” for theoretical physicists is actually limited by particle physics, quantum mechanics, and general relativity theory.
To help us explore dimensions we may not be aware of and to explain various phenomena in the known universe, I have developed a model that can be applied to “everything” a user chooses to investigate. Anyone (scholar or layperson) can use it to organize and compare the diverse and fascinating aspects of the natural universe, including the complex ways human beings perceive their habitat and organize themselves. This model has the potential of being applicable to virtually everything anyone could ever come up with. For instance, one can combine natural science with the social sciences, as I have shown in the samples below. Likewise, throughout all branches and fields of study (including subfields), everything can be related to everything else. This mega-dimensional (“Mega-D”) model has an enormous range of practical applications. It could be used in post-graduate studies, tertiary and secondary level education and, at the same time, prepare primary-school children to comprehend the natural, cultural and social universes of which they are part. Not only can this model help us better understand ourselves but it can also assist us in learning to cope with the overwhelming onslaught of information in an increasingly complex world.
I anticipate that my Mega-D model will evolve into a necessary instrument for interdisciplinary studies. It could ultimately become an enhancement for Internet search engines, inspiring the development of various related applications (“apps”). It could be used to extend the field of information architecture, to determine the relevancy of data in an age of “info glut,” and to assist in the advancement of artificial intelligence. It has the potential to improve surveillance technology. Social science needs this model more than anything........in fact, this mega-dimensional model could be used by political grassroots movements to promote the cause.
It could also be helpful in refining educational computer games and virtual reality simulations. In psychology, education, and employment testing, this model could lead to the development of innovative projective tests to analyze a person’s state of mind, to evaluate skill-sets, and to ascertain levels of expertise. In this regard, my mega-dimensional method is superior to a multiple-choice format, which is in actuality a form of gambling.
Since the turn of the current millennium, it has become increasingly apparent that more and more people, especially the younger generations, are living and communicating in virtual reality and cyber-space, often to a greater extent than in their actual or real-time environment. Because of the World Wide Web, we have begun to realize not only that human relationships can be conducted on a wider scale than ever before, but also that information of all kinds is available to us anywhere and anytime.
As a result of the information explosion triggered by the Internet and the increased accessibility of once remote parts of our planet and even outer space, interdisciplinary study is gaining increased importance on a global scale. In fact, people’s lives depend on it. We can no longer ignore the events in far-away regions: an earthquake, tsunami or political revolution on one side of the globe can trigger untold repercussions thousands of miles away. Bearing this in mind, we now find it necessary to explain the complexity of established categories by relating them to other categories that, according to former traditions, were unrelated. This is true in the natural sciences as well as in the social sciences and in every other branch of knowledge. For all of these reasons, what we need now is an efficient mega-dimensional model which can be used by anyone, and which is not just limited to our “real-time” physical reality.
We need a model that is also capable of dealing with metaphysical concepts. Ironically, the idea of looking for a different kind of reality and causation started in ancient times—first with religion, and later with Aristotle’s branch of metaphysical philosophy. In later centuries, such broad-based thinking affected the scientific disciplines. I would suggest here that we adopt a new scientific discipline (which I call Inter-Science) to describe a re-emergence of a polymathic tradition—one designed to connect different subject areas that have over time (as knowledge became more and more specialized) lost their inter-relationship.
The universal circumstances of humanity in the 21st century—which include, for example, an exponential increase of information and communication, global warming, the emergence of a global economy, and the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction—make it imperative for us to understand and overcome regional, national, religious and cultural differences and focus on what all of humanity actually has in common.
For all of these reasons, I have developed a Mega-D model based on a matrix of twenty-four essential concepts, or CONditions (“cons”), with each “con” incorporating a particular set of universal properties with certain characteristics. But, as in a fractal geometrical representation, self-similarity manifests itself repeatedly in different levels, in that each condition also incorporates other conditions within itself. Therefore, the parameters of the different conditions or “cons” and the various CATegories (“cats”) which they intersect cannot be considered absolute or clearly defined since they overlap. The way a person utilizes these basic “cons” is actually a reflection of the user’s state of mind, knowledge, and purpose in accessing this model and method.
Throughout my Mega-D model, the phenomenon of self-similarity happens because any CONdition, or “con,” can be split into twenty-four parts of all the other cons (from COSMOS (category) to IMMORTALITY). The system’s inherent paradox (dividing what is actually part of the same) creates an increase of complexity and therefore enhances relatedness on many levels. This model is a generative system (like math, grammar, and musical notation), with twenty-four basic “cons”; each is a reflection of a group that shares specific characteristics. For fundamental education in multi-dimensionality (which I call Mega-D kindergarten, or level one), a person starts out with just the basic twenty-four “cons.” A more sophisticated and experienced Mega-D explorer could (and should) simultaneously use at least three “cons” in combination. After that, the range for comparison (interdisciplinary study) is limited only by the user’s experience, knowledge, and motivation.
Today we assume that in our complex tapestry of existence there are many different levels, dimensions, layers and conditions which develop in our self-expressing mind through language. Our cognition/consciousness looks for similarities, and with that innate predisposition occurs the naming of categories. For example, there are galactic observations and discoveries—such as celestial objects, space, and everything in the entire universe, the study of which we refer to as astronomy. On our planet we recognize chemical substances (chemistry) and principles of interaction (physics), geographical descriptions of the physical features of the landscape and bodies of water, including the atmosphere (geography). Geological conditions can be shown to be connected with flora and fauna (biology). Human impact is another level of existence with its particular kind of infrastructure changing constantly in time and space (social science). On the social and organizational level, we deal with such subjects as the nuclear family; tribes; religious, political and economic development; artistic conduct; and other objects of inquiry, including myriads of alternative and deviant behaviors. All of these phenomena can be perceived through natural, social and cultural patterns. And, of course, everything can be compared with everything else. I cannot mention here every aspect and category, but I hope you get the idea.
The first CONdition (“con”) in my Mega-D model is (#0) COSMOS (“cat’), in which the user adds any subject area, or CATegory, s/he wants to explore. To demonstrate the universal aspects of my model and theory, I choose to focus here on the following:
NATURE, HUMANS, TRIBES, RELIGIONS, POLITICS, ECONOMY, SPORTS, SCIENCE & EDUCATION, ART, and COUNTER CULTURE including MISFITS.
The next group—comprised of six “cons” from (#1) CREATION to (#6) ORDER combined—represents the structure of anything the user wants to explore and apply it to. In this model, structure and human perception are synonymous. I therefore postulate the following statement:
The way humans perceive the environment is the way humanity structures society.
The beginning, (#1) CREATION, is the cause, stimulus. It represents how things or phenomena originate. (#2) AUTHORITY is the effect of the creation, what or who something/somebody is, and therefore identity. (#3) RELATION connects who or what with when and where, or who, where, and how. For efficiency, everything in this “con” should be done in triangular manner. (#4) ARRANGEMENT could be how the landscape is structured, a time frame, and/or any kind of pattern, classification and measurement. In actuality everything manifests itself as an (#5) ASSEMBLAGE, and this is reflected in the (#4) ARRANGEMENT con also, emphasizing organization. (#6) ORDER is the recognition that everything is assembled is arranged in one way or other, a system.
The next group—comprised of ten “cons” from (#7) EVOLUTION to (#16) MUSIC—represents historical and contemporary processes.
That is to say: All (#7) EVOLUTION is historical development. Sometimes this can be perceived as (#8) VIOLENCE, chaos and disorder because it interferes with someone’s well-being and can occasionally be considered a key event of (#9) IMPORTANCE causing a paradigm shift in established circumstances and tradition. These are sometimes marked by anniversaries giving meaning to (#10) TIME, and thereby changing the zeitgeist. Humans experience time linearly: something has a beginning and an end. On a subatomic level, there is nonlinear quantum time. A calendar gives meaning to circular and linear time perception. Time can also be experienced metaphorically as in the statement, “Time is money.” Matter can be analyzed as evidence of historical events (astronomers, geologists, and archaeologists utilize time this way); and human institutions, with the help of the arts create monuments in the form of statues, buildings or other structural styles to create a state of (#11) MIND for any given population, an awareness which, in turn, gives meaning to the past and also influences present and future processes. These processes manifest themselves in (#12) MOTION. For contemporary industry and science, matter is and can be transformed to energy. All (#13) ORGANIC MATTER is also in motion and therefore needs nutrition (energy) for growth, continuation and survival. Everything there is behaves or (#14) CONDUCT itself according to natural forces and/or out of wants and needs. Humans sometimes express their wants/needs in the form of (#15) SPEECH and writing. The communication of humans and animals can also be expressed in (#16) MUSICal form.
The next two groups, matter and space, exemplify how one “con” makes much more sense in relation to others and how all twenty-four “cons” overlap. In the human mind (#17) INORGANIC MATTER and (#20) SPACE are intricately linked. However, this connection manifests itself in different ways according to one’s discipline: for instance, the concept of (#19) COVERING might manifest as galactic space for astronomers, the human body for fashion designers, or infrastructure (roads, transportation, buildings) for architects and engineers, with other variations applicable in industrial and or military contexts. For physicists, for example, “Covering” can refer to subatomic structures. In the Mega-D Condition referred to as IMMORTALITY (#23), variations in meaning occur, according to context: in nature, perhaps it is infinity; for human consumption, it could mean the perpetuation of ideas in the form of important events, art, famous people, literature, historically significant construction; or it could include the preservation of a landscape in its natural state.
To illustrate an effective and practical use of my Mega-D model, let me describe here one approach a person might use to discover interdisciplinary connections by interacting within this multi-dimensional matrix. First, decide the general CATegory: Cosmos (#0) you want to work in—NATURE, POLITICS, RELIGION, etc. After that, you should consider (#1) Creation because here is the reason you do this exercise in the first place. Creation is the cause of whatever you want to explore. This CONdition combines all the aspects (oneness) that will later be polarized into all the other CONditions. After that, (#2) AUTHORITY will be the effect of the creation above (of the idea, theme, topic, etc.), and it is a dual representation. It divides everything that is the same from everything that is different, including what is perhaps ignored and/or ineffective. This therefore is recognized as what causes the identity of whatever you have chosen. (#3) RELATION
is the next step (a “tri-logical” conclusion, as it were). This approach takes what seems to be different, and by correlating diverse aspects of a common idea or purpose, reveals perhaps hidden similarities. All of this so far (#0-#3) is very abstract (meta-physical), but in (#4) ARRANGEMENT I advise you to get much more precise. “Arrangement” includes everything and often refers to ideas, phenomena, systems, objects, organisms, persons, groups, etc. in a manner in which something can be measured—some but not necessarily all of it—an aspect that I mentioned before in describing CONditions (“cons”) #0-#3.
Finally, one must be aware that many things happen simultaneously and/or have an incredible number of aspects. Therefore, we have to simplify things to such a degree that what it means to different people is often totally distorted. Any plant, animal, or human is a very complex manifestation of an organism, with many aspects of existence, but we just identify it by a name—i.e., (#2) AUTHORITY and/or (#18) SIGN. For example, depending on the context, the name we are referring to may denote a certain Joe Doe and his signature, or an oak tree, or perhaps just a bird, and so on. Recognizing a (#10) TIME line or putting something into a specific (#21) LOCATION adds to the description of whatever it is that we are dealing with. Any title of a movie, book, play, or an individual person is actually a simplification of a very complex creation.
You can more clearly visualize the interactive processes of the Mega-D system and some of its myriad possibilities as you read the sample chart I have extended below. It outlines the generic CONditions (“cons”) of the Mega-D matrix and indicates how one user might apply the method to extrapolate various connections between the 23 fundamental “cons” and the intersecting CATegories (“cats”). After the determination of the CATegory and the structure within (#0 to #6), all the other CONditions can be applied as well. So fasten your seatbelt for an amazing ride into the fascinating realm of multi-dimensionality.
0) COSMOS: Could be anything.
.................................................1) CREATION: Why? Entire and potential stimuli (reality).
.................................................2) AUTHORITY: What? or Who? Filters effective and ineffective stimuli.
.................................................3) RELATION: Who? or What? How? Why? When?
.................................................4) ARRANGEMENT: How? Psychophysical scaling (threshold; magnitude, pattern).
.................................................5) ASSEMBLAGE: entire complex of stimuli (effective and ineffective)—senses.
.................................................6) ORDER: System, structuralism; perception (consciousness)—senses.
........................................................................................................7) EVOLUTION: How?
........................................................................................................8) VIOLENCE: Key events—chaos.
........................................................................................................9) IMPORTANCE: Key events—constructive.
........................................................................................................10) TIME: When?
.................................................11) MIND: Who? Why? Perception (consciousness)—senses.
....................................................................................................................................................12) MOTION: How? Perception—senses.
....................................................................................................................................................13) ORGANIC MATTER: Who? What? Perception-senses.
....................................................................................................................................................14) CONDUCT: How? Behavior, function, expression, role.
....................................................................................................................................................15) SPEECH: Communication; sound, sight, touch, smell, taste, chemical.
....................................................................................................................................................16) MUSIC: Communication; musical sound, hearing.
...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................17) INORGANIC MATTER: What?
...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................18) SIGN: What? Perception—sensory stimuli
...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................19) COVERING: What? How? Perception—sensory.
....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................20) SPACE: Where?
...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................21) LOCATION: Where?
...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................22) INTERMENT: Where? What? How?
........................................................................................................23) IMMORTALITY: How?
1) CREATION: Why? Entire and potential stimuli (reality).
Premise: Does; represents cause; chance, determinism; it is oneness (monism); initiation; invention; discovery; beginning; original; natural forces; chemical reaction; gravity; sunrise, sunset; seed, genes; pancreas, hormones; mutation, fertilization, birth; everything that is new or transforms; genesis, miracle, idea, feeling, incentive, change; sponsorship, license, certificate, interest rates; gift/gifted; art/artist; expression/impression; founding fathers; institution/endowment, investment; promotion, influence.
NATURE: Natural creation entails everything there is in the world. In fact, the entire universe—galaxies, stars, and planets on the macro scale, down to the micro-scale of matter—including atoms and subatomic particles and everything in between; also planet formation, landscapes, weather systems, etc., including every aspect of our ecosystem.
HUMAN: The human creation story starts with the first humans who most likely migrated out of Africa. Each new development—from flint-knapping, early farming, domestication of wild plants and animals, up to today’s sophisticated technology—is evidence of human creativity. On a contemporary personal level, we find that all aspects of life—whether scientific, educational or occupational, as well as all activities of courtship, marriage, procreation, plus everything else humans do, or create, or identify with—belong here in this condition.
TRIBES: Tribal creation varies considerably throughout time and space. But for the social sciences (especially physical and social anthropology), the early development of social structures is the key to whatever comes thereafter. The proliferation of families, clans and tribes, many of which later merged into kingdoms and nations, is a common pattern. In our time, there are still places where tribalism dominates the political landscape. Elsewhere, clans sometime dominate the political power structure, often as dynastic monarchies; but governing power can also be consolidated in one prominent political family.
RELIGIONS: The category of religious creation is ideal for comparing different religions. A desire for spirituality, as opposed to the quest for material things, seems to be universal; yet the expression of this impulse throughout the ages and in diverse locations has varied greatly. The creators (prophetic revelations) and leaders of religious movements, the development of sacred laws, miracles, items, places and structures, including art, belong here in this condition.
POLITICS: Political creations are, like everything described above, dependent upon the context of a particular time and place. In many areas today the trend is moving away from political power concentrated in the hands of the few and toward a more complex power structure in which the masses are given more voice in political affairs. While revolutions and wars (including terrorism) are perhaps the most spectacular manifestations of this trend, many gradual changes effected through less dramatic means have also had an impact on political culture. The founding fathers of nations, the victors of wars and revolutions, as well as empire builders and superpowers belong here. On the micro-scale, every lawgiver or enforcer, taxpayer or criminal—perhaps even each voter in an election—ads to this mix.
ECONOMY: Economic creation, like everything above, evolves in stages. The driving forces in economic development are political, scientific, educational, and economic institutions and corporations on the macro-scale; and inventors, investors, entrepreneurs, consumer choice on the micro-scale. One major invention or technological breakthrough can create entire new industries and markets and, at the same time, destroy well-established enterprises and even entire industries. Governments supply money, create laws of taxation, and regulate all business activities on a national and international level.
CULTURE: Cultural creation includes all manifestations and intellectual achievements of a particular place and time. In Sports, this could mean recreational physical activities performed at one’s leisure, on the one hand, or setting a new record or winning a competition, on the other. In Science & Education, creation could be a new discovery, the development of a technological method and its popularization via a new kind of educational method. Art: Arts creations are very much related to our senses and perception and often manifest as an expression of the human experience. Myriads of examples are present in the visual arts. Music and poetry enhance sound and can tell a story. Other performing arts and literary forms do the same in a different way. Every human activity can be considered at times an art form (spoken/written words, walk/dance, dress/attire, or craft) on a higher and more sophisticated level. Military protocol refers to the killing of opponents as the “art of war.”
COUNTER CULTURE: Almost everything that has become established practice today was at one time considered to be counter-cultural or even misfit behavior. Revolutionary movements throughout history—such as the American, French and Russian revolutions, as well as other massive paradigm changes around the world, such as early scientific, technological, industrial and agrarian revolutions—give testimony to this reality.
And, of course, political movements of various kinds (economic, art or everything else) often have a period of anti-establishment development, which then turns into the dominant establishment, only to revert once again to a misfit situation. Fascism, communism, monarchy and many religious entities can be cited for this process, as well as such industrial constructs as the fashion industry, which creates style habits and can influence musical taste, architecture, and many other human activities.
2) AUTHORITY: What? or Who? Filters effective and ineffective stimuli.
Premise: Is; represents manifestation (effect); causal nexus, meaning; clue; analysis, control and preservation of the creation; noun, proper noun, object; being, identity; label, archetype, gender, hormone, genes; name, award, title, recognition; idol, icon, celebrity; authenticity; mastery, medium; empowerment; interest rates, franchise; philosophical stance in analogy, metaphor; dual, binary or parallel concepts; symmetry, supersymmetry, bifurcation; same/different; particle/anti-particle, positive/negative; action/reaction, attraction/repulsion, up/down, right/left, external/internal; hot/cold, DNA (double helix): on-off, 0-1, node/link, us/them, win/lose, predator/prey, fight/flight; to be or not to be; existence/nonexistence, female/male, yin/yang, nature/nurture, parent/family; public/private, expression/impression, trial/error; known/unknown; true/false, sacred/secular, miracle/saint, body/soul; gift/gifted; physical/metaphysical;deity/believers, virtue/vice; guilty/innocent; good/bad; condemn/approve, performance/audience, choice/consequence, student/study, exploration/area, research/conclusion, PhD/dissertation; promotion/promoter, key/door, password/admission. Property/owner, master/slave, worker/work, employer/employe, cost/benefit, supply/demand, income/expense, occupation/proceedings; farmer/farming; artist/art, artifacts/collection, philanthrope/foundation, Religion & Politics: God/prophet, kingdom/king, supreme authority (deity)/representative (religious, politics), celebrity, famous/infamous, serve/served, ruler/ruled, check and balance, insider/outsider, country/citizenry; Host: a person; organism; place; habitat, roads, railroads; broadcasting.
In the first condition above, I established that everything in existence is, in one way or another, a (#1) CREATION. Creation can be defined as the beginning and/or the cause of a phenomenon (natural or human). Here in (#2) AUTHORITY we are concerned with the effect of all the creations mentioned above. Of course, throughout history, human knowledge about what we encounter and what actually exists is as clouded as the original reason that a specific creation came into being at all.
NATURE: The absolute authority that keeps our universe together is comprised of the four known forces: the strong force, the electromagnetic force, the weak force, and the law of universal gravitation. There are many more natural laws, a topic to be explored in (#6) ORDER.
HUMANS: Human authority in and of the natural world is not as supreme as most of us would hope or envision. For starters, microorganisms preceded us in evolutionary development, and they will probably be here after we are gone. Remember the dinosaurs? On the food chain (with its distorted hierarchical arrangement—i.e., predator/prey, etc.), we are just part of a complex food web in which nothing ends up on top.
What makes us tick? (#2) AUTHORITY includes on a personal level all of our needs, wants and what we focus on or whatever gets our attention. It can last for a few seconds or for a lifetime, and it can change over time. It can be an insect that annoys us, or perhaps a car that is good for a few years. Every experience—birth, love, friendship, marriage, parenthood, spirituality, victory or defeat, accident, sickness, personal possessions and/or everything we recognize—requires a particular (#11) MINDset , is influenced, or dominated by commanding (#2) AUTHORITY about our consciousness and (#14) CONDUCT.
In our quest for physical survival, there is another hierarchy: we need air, food and drink, clothes and shelter, personal protection by health care and a secure, safe habitat. Our needs for social relationships, spirituality and self-expression are also important, as well as the necessity of information about what’s going on and what we should know and do. Our desire for possessions and services, as well as income and entertainment can be satisfied by all kinds of organizations, including entire industries whose products and services we can avail ourselves of, directly or indirectly.
TRIBAL: Patriarchal or matriarchal (#2) AUTHORITY and domination by elders and the clan are declining institutions on the verge of extinction, widely considered inappropriate within the context of modern statehood, and retaining importance primarily in underdeveloped countries.
RELIGIOUS (#2) AUTHORITY worldwide—including gurus, priests, lamas, rabbis, imams, religious scholars and other clergy—are now seriously challenged by modern scientific knowledge and secular education. Many of these authorities are also impacted by the effects of the globalization of information by all kinds of media and, of course, by an increasingly secular (#11) MINDset now influencing human behavior.
POLITICAL (#2) AUTHORITY—such as that ascribed to a chief, king/queen, president, prime minister, governor, etc., including associated political (#5) ASSEMBLAGE, parties and other organizations, governmental branches, and bureaucracies—is directly related to the dominant political (#6) ORDER/system in a particular area.
The ECONOMY—with its enormous capacity/AUTHORITY (#2) to fulfill human needs and desires for consumer goods, services, and entertainment—can now accomplish in a peaceful way what politics and religion were never previously able to achieve: global interdependency. For example, the E.U. (European Union) is economically based.
The trend in modern global pop CULTURE is entertainment (art, music, movies, the Internet), which is dominated by the U.S.A. The real authority in Sports resides not with the record holders, but the clubs. Scientific authority (as a method) and its representatives (discovery and discoverer) are based on research, experiments, and verification.
Everything we know, do or think must be identified—that is, given (#2) AUTHORITY—and, as a consequence, given a name, number, letter, title, or all of these combined. A theater play, book, movie, symphony, song, painting, sculpture, building, corporation, place, city, nation and individual human being are very complex constructs, all of which we recognize with names, numbers and abbreviations, differentiated by using letters, shapes, colors, etc. All the factors are (#5) ASSEMBLED and (#4) ARRANGED in a particular (#6) ORDER. And the dualistic concept (#2)—Latin identitas, idem “same”—distinguishes everything that appears to be part of the same and separates it from everything that is different.
In the next condition below (#3), I try to convey the idea of how two opposites (duality) can turn into a state of equilibrium, balance, and continuum. For example, physical attraction (objects that move toward each other) and repulsion (objects that move away from each other) can create a state of equilibrium (such as exists in our solar system). A male and female can create an offspring to continue the species. A trial-and-error examination can establish qualities, suitability, or perhaps a new technology and/or product. Cost-benefit analysis is a deciding factor in determining if a future action should be taken or not. An argument can be pursued or judgement decided by comparing opposites—i.e., pro’s and con’s—in building a case. Statements and rebuttals are part of this dualistic, or win/lose, style of logical argumentation. Likewise, in political elections or sporting events, the winner (champion or candidate/representative for an elected office) is the result of performances by opposing parties.
3) RELATION: Who? or What? How? Why? When?
Premise: Correlates; represents connection, coordinate, synthesis; balance, equilibrium; tria juncta in uno. Matter: strong–weak–electromagnetic force. Triple point: liquid–solid–gas. Density: high–medium–low. Sound: ultra–normal (audible)–infrasound. Nervous system: autonomic–central–peripheral. Three-dimensional measurement; past–present–future. Pythagorean ideas (triangle), trigonometry; religious trinity; three branches of government; troika in politics; left–liberal–right; literary trilogy. Trivium; trimester in education and pregnancy; thesis–antithesis–synthesis; good–bad–indifferent; Olympic medals: gold–silver–bronze.
Above, in (#1) CREATION, no one will doubt that everything is in some way or another created. Conflict— (#2) AUTHORITY is often saturated with dual controversy—arises from the who or what, how in (#7) EVOLUTION, and the why in (#11) MIND, causality. (#2) AUTHORITY sets the agenda/topic and is, simultaneously, the effect, while (#1) CREATION is the cause.
The items of the (#1) CREATION condition, when reflected in the (#2) AUTHORITY condition, can encroach upon bias and personal opinion and purposes.
Here, in the (#3) RELATION condition, I have come up with a method (triangulation) to coordinate and make sense of these complex structures, sometimes with paradoxical contradictions; and to clarify and connect all kinds of outlooks (cognitive perspectives), by demonstrating context and explaining unique changes, through different cultural systems, in a certain (#6) ORDER, in (#10) TIME, and in (#20) SPACE.
Nothing exists within itself. To make sense of, say, a certain phenomena, or history, or the rise, decline and/or extinction of an institution or organization (political or religious), I propose using a 24-dimensional paradigm, in the shape of a diagram which can be applied to everything there is; and here I use triangulation for crucial main-branching to demonstrate complexity and change and sometimes even paradigm shifts.
NATURAL interrelationship can also be explained via triples—for example, the concept of Time can be seen in three parts: past–present–future. Physical substances in general manifest in three states: liquid–solid–gas. Atomic structure is built on a triad of sub-atomic components: nucleus–protons–neutrons. To explain DNA and RNA molecules that carry genetic information in living cells, science uses a triplex code. Newton used three laws of motion. All objects (including our planet) have an Internal Structure—Outer Surface—i.e., structures, (#4) ARRANGEMENT—and exist in External Space. Artists use often use Three-Dimensional representation, three primary colors, trilogy, triptych, trios, and so on. The Olympic awards are comprised of three medals: Gold–Silver–and Bronze.
Personal HUMAN relationships, including plants and animals, can be described as Male–Female–Sexual intercourse, resulting in the triangular relationship between Male–Female–Offspring. Our nervous system can be categorized into three related aspects: autonomic-central-peripheral. Common life experience can be divided into three segments: young–midlife–old age. And, of course, societies can be seen as comprised of three classes: upper–middle–and lower.
For basic TRIBAL structures, the concept of three levels resulted in chieftains–elders–tribe at large. The genesis of economic activities is/was bartering and marriages, and with that, a dowry. Other options could include
Property, Merchandise, and Services–Supplier–and Receiver
In an antiquated POLITICAL system such as the European monarchy, a division exists between three estates: nobility, clergy and commoners. In a modern nation (U.S.A.), the governmental power is divided into three branches: Executive–Legislative–Judiciary. In modern political ideology, we find three wings: left–liberal–right wing.
England: the three estates of the realm.
Parliament: lords spiritual, lords temporal, the commoners
During World War II, a 3-part alliance on both sides describes the major powers involved in the conflict: with the Soviet Union, the United States, and Great Britain fighting for the Allies, and an opposing tripartite alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan for the Axis.
The “Cold War” of the post World War II period experienced two super-powers (U.S.A. and U.S.S.R.), along with their allied nations and an underdeveloped Third World.
The leaders of the “Third World” were Nasser (Egypt), Tito (Yugoslavia), and Nehru (India).
But no matter how religious, political, business, educational or any other human organizations justify their mission, our universal human needs and wants always remain at the core. I suggest here that all human existence throughout history can be explained by:
The People–Needs and/or Wants–Organization and Systems.
Of course, there is also a direct relationship to be noted between the following concepts:
Where–When–How people live in whatever situation is.
What is possible Environmentally–Technologically–and Politically
Environmental Circumstances–Natural and Human Behavior–Human Organization.
Environmental circumstances can mean the climate and, with that, what is available in the natural landscape, rivers and oceans, wildlife—i.e., native fauna and flora of a region.
Technological aspects can be seen in the way humans interact with their environment, making use of natural resources by fishing, farming, mining and other industries, and by manufacturing goods in factories. The development of a viable infrastructure—cities, roads, harbors, railroad, power supply, telecommunication and so on—influences trade, needs and wants.
In ECONOMIC practice (and everything else), we can also use triangulation to determine the value (#4) ARRANGEMENT of anything. First, we choose the item, product, or service and then consider how much of this exists or can be produced. After that, we ask ourselves how many people (consumers) want to to buy this product or service.
The formula is three-fold: Product or service (value)-Supply-and Demand.
In every type of political system, the question arises concerning how much (#4) ARRANGEMENT the residents of a particular area (kingdom, nation, empire, etc.) are in sync with each other and how much they identify themselves with their government’s actions.
Residents or Citizenry – State of Mind - Territory
Government (representatives) – Residents or Citizenry – Territory
The modern-day United States is a multi-national country, and every time the nation is at war or a conflict of foreign policy arises, the question of loyalty in the national interest appears. We can extend our understanding of these complex dynamics by examining the following three-fold interactions:
U.S.A. national interest – U.S. international policy – Public Opinion
American Residents – Cause of War – Identification with the Cause
To the Country of Origin – their Loyalty – To the Adopted Country
American aboriginals (Indians or Native Americans), African Americans, Americans of German descent, Japanese, Italians, Hispanics, British, Irish, Chinese, Koreans, Vietnamese, people of Russian or Polish descent, including Jews, Catholics, Muslims, Hindus and Buddhists – all of these disparate groups reside in the U.S. This Mega-D model is an ideal format in which to raise the questions of a nation’s needs and wants, and to explore the sometimes conflicting loyalties of various individuals. It could also be used to address global integration issues in: Europe, Australia, Asia and Africa.
To extend the idea of relationship a bit further, many things we usually consider as absolutes actually often exist in an ARRANGEMENT (#4) of degrees: for example, light or dark, soft vs. hard, hot or cold, including the gamut of feelings and attitudes such as: compassion, love-hate, loyal-disloyal, patriotic-unpatriotic, right-wrong, good vs. evil, guilty and innocent. Below are some further three-part extensions:
Justice and a trial creates: winners – losers – judgement (judge)
prosecution – defense – judgement
Hegel’s concept: thesis – antithesis – synthesis
But the truth is often a matter of partiality, and in the U.S.A., ascertaining culpability (guilt) and sentencing (punishment) are always done in the First, Second, or Third Degree. The biggest conflict in any legal system is found in the discrepancy between the individual’s interest and that of society at large and/or the state which manifests itself in the opinions of those in political power and leadership. Human laws invariably reflect the interest—i.e., MIND set (#11)—of the legislators (mostly lawyers), who in many cases are actually more concerned with serving themselves than their constituents. Throughout history, no political representative ever truly represented entirely all the people in a given political jurisdiction or territory.
4) ARRANGEMENT: How? Psychophysical scaling (threshold; magnitude, pattern).
Premise: Represents fragmentation; polarization; complexity; beginning, intermediate, end, synthesis; chronology, sequence; all measurements: time, speed; stage, layer, sector; degree, probability, range, pattern; dimension; nano; metric system. Scales: temperature, weight; intensity. Any organization, all systems: solar system, constellations; electromagnetic spectrum, periodic table; plate tectonics, topography, landscape; eco-system; form; cladogram, family tree; attention span; age set, life span, lineage, hierarchy; genetic code - ACTG. All classification; music (and tempo); math; data, map; matrix, table. Design, composition, syntax, model; index; algorithm; quantity/quality, value; rate/rating, budget, profile, rank/file; award, vote, share, demographics; census, poll; geopolitics; jurisdiction; charisma, infrastructure; development; macro and micro economics; econometrics; pay scale, chain of command; manufacturing process; assembly line, supply chain. Network: roads; railroads, people, broadcasting, Internet, social.
The ARRANGEMENT condition is everything measured. It is the most challenging of my 24-mega-dimensional conditions. It reflects the intricate, complex tapestry of our entire universe and our existence within and beyond our reality. An item that you apply this Mega-D model to is simultaneously arranged within itself, and in time and space.
A NATURAL arrangement can be anything in the boundless universe of galaxies down to the habitat of microorganisms and subatomic structures, as well as anything in between. Our Solar System is part of a galactic structure. On the planetary level of our Earth, geological history (as indicated by analysis of strata) can express the relationship between landscape, rivers and oceans, along with the effects of the atmosphere/weather/climate over eons, and everything else that gives meaning to geography as a science. In the biological environment, an eco-system and/or the evolutionary organization of different organisms can be represented as a cladogram, or perhaps in the pecking order of chickens. It can include the growth rate of everything—i.e., the growth of a plant, animal, or human population, and so on. Within the (#4) ARRANGEMENT condition belongs every measurement and everything you can measure. The entire electromagnetic spectrum, the periodic table, and every other kind of database can be integrated here to demonstrate the relationship to other sets of data.
HUMAN arrangement can be the macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the human body, or perhaps a biographical description of a sequence of events. Moreover, any personal letter is a composition arranged in a particular way and style. In fact, anybody’s life cycle, style and habits are a specific arrangement of family, education, work, leisure and everything else we do. And in our time, especially in cities, people are constantly changing from one sector of organized (#6) and (#4) ARRANGED (#14) CONDUCT into another one. Shopping, walking, commuting, working; a restaurant, movie, museum, religious service, and so on—everything demands a different and specific state of (#11) MIND accordingly to the circumstances.
Modern human perception (arrangements) about our natural habitat may be researched on many levels using various instruments—from microscopes to telescopes, and with all kinds of measuring instruments—such as a scale, clock, thermometer, speedometer, GPS (Global Positioning System); or an oscillograph, PET scan, particle accelerator, etc.
TRIBAL social/religious/political arrangement is based on descent, ancestry, heritage and/or tribal myth. The early dominance of a certain group is based on a commanding clan and the cooperating elders of a tribe. Later this evolved into a class of nobility. The division (and often the conflict) between sacred and secular existed throughout history.
All RELIGIOUS arrangements are basically the same. On top (in reality) are the natural circumstances which are often interpreted as supernatural events that can be manipulated or influenced by the proper knowledge, practices and association with a specific group. To be part of a specific group, one must meet certain criteria—perhaps one must profess recognition of several divine facts. And one must avow the superiority of that religion’s founder to everything else in existence. One must declare absolute acceptance of the religious leader’s superiority—i.e., hierarchical (#6) ORDER—and wisdom to engage in specific required rules of conduct, as well as admit to perceiving the miracles, myth and history of that religion as important and truthful. When, where and under what kind of political system someone has lived or lives is often essential to what religion that person belongs to. And for this reason, many times a person is unable to reform, ignore or escape from the established religious system without being harmed. The degree of injury varies throughout (#20) SPACE and (#10) TIME. It is an ongoing (#7) EVOLUTIONary process which continues in our own modern age.
Using this Mega-D model is an ideal way for a person to engage in inter-religious study, not only to ascertain what makes a certain religion unique and distinguish it from other belief systems but also to analyze how a specific religion synchronizes itself with the secular environment and therefore changes over time. In addition, one can explore how technological progress and new scientific revelation can challenge former established beliefs and lead to new beliefs.
POLITICAL arrangements/systems universally have a lot in common with religious organizations. In fact, many political systems, such as (#6) ORDER, are actually based in religion or evolved from it—as in (#7) EVOLUTION. Key to understanding any political system is knowing when— (#10) TIME, where—LOCATION (#21), and who— (#2) AUTHORITY. In a monarchy, for example, political (#4) ARRANGEMENT is based on succession; in a democracy, it is based on election. And any large organization, including government, has a chain of command.
All political systems, as all religions, EVOLVE (#7) over TIME (#10). Different places have unique political (#6) ORDER or are a variation of other systems found elsewhere. The essence of all political systems is multi-faceted—namely, the way of governing a specific habitat/SPACE (#20), and how the people within that habitat are put under the jurisdiction (#19, COVER) of those having official power. In a modern democracy, the desired outcome is for the ballot box (that is, the voters) to influence the laws of the land.
This method of mega-dimensionality, particularly through Interdisciplinary studies, should be helpful in the field of political science in comparing different political systems. And this model can function in integrating natural, economic, religious, individual and other circumstances into the complex.
ECONOMIC arrangement could represent all aspects of macro- and micro-economics—from budget, market share, interest rates, and profit margins to money supply, growth rate and infrastructure.
In business, it is important not only to determine how many people show interest in a product or service, but also how many actually buy it, and what percentage of those customers come back for more. In arrangement (#4), items exist up to a degree (%), and in the economy this applies to such factors as natural resources, human resources, productivity, GDP (gross domestic product), market share and the pool of customers. For any business, nation, or individual, the lowest state of economic existence is bankruptcy.
CULTURAL (#4) ARRANGEMENT could be manifested in cultural events of all kinds. Sports arrangements are games with their rules, tournaments, scores and championships.
SCIENCE & EDUCATION: Most systems of formal education are comprised of at least three levels of instruction or degrees: primary (K-8), secondary (high school), and tertiary (college or university). Mathematics is the ultimate proof of the determination of truth in all scientific branches. Mathematics is on the top, and the other disciplines and branches follow.
In the ARTS, (#4) ARRANGEMENT could be a life performance or other form of expression enhancing cultural life, or the composition of a painting or musical score, as well as the design of a building or product. And, of course, in the arts as in any other human activity, certain people are (#2) AUTHORITY and often well known. By outperforming the rest and setting new standards, they have acquired a prestige qualifying them for celebrity status within the domain of any organizational (#5, #6), (#4) ARRANGEMENT.
COUNTER CULTURAL circumstances. Over time, every established arrangement (natural or human) becomes rearranged.
In the NATURAL world, the expansion of the entire universe changes its macro composition. New stars are born and others die. Entire galaxies are on the move and sometimes even collide, thereby rearranging the existing constellations.
On the global level, the continental shift rearranges the continents, the seas and the overall landscape. Chemical compounds with a certain ratio of atoms for each element interact with others, causing chemical reactions that result in different chemical (or material) compositions. The entire global atmosphere is subject to gravity and ever-changing temperatures; carbon dioxide concentrations fluctuate and change with the seasons. And, perhaps in the not-so-distant future, the human-generated release of carbon dioxide will ultimately change the entire climate of our planet.
The evolutionary development of living organisms fosters diversification of earlier life forms. New species appear, and older species change or disappear. Sometime they become extinct because of natural phenomena and/or other changes in the ecosystems caused by the increasing encroachment of humanity.
In HUMAN affairs, people are born into a natural/social environment of habitat, family, and religious, political, economic and cultural circumstances. With every fertile courtship, marriage or sexual union, new offspring change the genealogical lineage and mark the appearance of a new extended family and social structure.
In the external environment, people compete and, to a certain degree, cooperate with others to find their place in the overall structure, at least for a certain period. Family life, educational activity, social life, economic pursuit, sports activities, political, religious and other cultural institutions are organized and often vie for membership and/or participation in social hierarchies. Most of these human activities or groups change over time, adjust to new situations, or in some cases, simply dissipate.
Countries, states, cities, and territories compete with one another for economic purposes by educating citizenry, developing favorable infrastructures, giving tax breaks to big business and multi-national corporations, and making trade agreements with foreign countries. They also foster the arts, sports, or other cultural events to attract audiences and tourism. And in certain places, industries and populations are on the rise, while in other locations, such entities are declining. Often new inventions and industrial development of various kinds can cause previously well established industries to lose ground or even vanish.
MISFITS status and arrangements exist on many levels. But there are always different opinions—MIND (#11)—of what is desired, what should change, and what cannot be tolerated. Judgement as to what is good or bad for society as a whole can change over time.
For example, ancient tribal structures and nomadic lifestyles are considered handicaps for the advent of modern states, agriculture, and industrial development. In most countries of the world today, monarchy is considered an anachronistic residue in the political evolutionary process. Yesterday’s pioneers in art, science, and technology were oddballs, but today some are idealized as forerunners of innovation and trendsetters for future generations.
Progress for one segment of society may lead to disaster for another. This concept can be demonstrated in the American, French, and Russian revolutions, or in any civil war, for that matter. Today’s globalization of trade and commerce creates winners and losers on a worldwide basis. The entire global arrangement is in constant flux and is reshuffled again and again. New regulations and laws are not always just and fair. Sometimes such legislation becomes an instrument that gives certain people an advantage over others.
In all cultures, there is some conduct which is considered deviant behavior by any standard. Yet acts of murder, rape, and theft are considered normal if not desirable behavior in the underworld of crime. If a government sanctions violence for a cause (usually in the guise of war, justice, and/or industrial development), the demarcation points covering all universal morality become blurred. In warfare, entire opposing nations and ethnicities (military troops, public officials, and civilians alike) are demonized and defined as misfits and pariahs.
5) ASSEMBLAGE: entire complex of stimuli (effective and ineffective)—senses.
Premise: Represents entire complex—the whole; emphasizes complexity in context, the group, the body; accumulation, mixtures and compounds; deals with aspects of organization (systems): tree of life to infra-structure; kinship; states, networks, organization, branches; scientific fields, collections; industries, institutions, boards of directors, committees, commission, bureaucracy; audience, clientele, fans; commodities; workforce, customers, followers, community, population. Roads, railroads; Network, broadcasting.
Everything we human beings know and perceive and believe in is part of an organized system, or (#6) ORDER—one that has many aspects and is part of a complex whole. In an attempt to make sense of it all, we separate things in our (#11) MIND to help us categorize and (#4) ARRANGE such features of our lives as our habitat, our stuff, and our ideas. Everything in the universe is part of, and/or an (#5) ASSEMBLAGE itself.
NATURE: On the grand scale of our universe, we observe enormous ASSEMBLAGE’s (#5)—galaxies, stars, planets, and so on. And on the micro scale, we recognize not only that the smallest particles (atoms) are the building blocks of all matter but also that atomic structure itself is actually an assemblage (see periodic table), one comprised of nucleus, electrons, protons, neutrons, and other subatomic particles. All matter can be identified as an assemblage internally and at the same time described as being part of a broad range of assemblages externally.
HUMANS: Each organism (including plants and the human body itself) is actually an (#5) ASSEMBLAGE within itself as well as a part of a wider array of organized entities. Our human body is made up of 100 trillion cells of very different types. Within the body there are different kinds of organs assembled in multiple systems—i.e., the skeletal system, muscular system, circulatory system, nervous system, and so forth—each fulfilling a different purpose. On the social level, animals and humans alike organize themselves into groups (#5, ASSEMBLAGE). And as part of Nature, the same thing happens with micro-organisms, as well as plants, insects, birds, and fish. Actually, animal species, including human beings, assemble themselves into socially interactive creatures and therefore become part of a larger (#6) ORDER/organization and system.
Family and clans are kinship systems, which extend to form TRIBES. People who look for the meaning of life and spirituality can form and/or become part of RELIGIOUS organizations, which essentially are (#5) ASSEMBLAGE based upon a common belief system.
POLITICAL (#5) ASSEMBLAGE’s are comprised of people who have convictions and common beliefs, and these usually result in a cause or a specific type of government. Some political assemblages place an emphasis on tribalism or ethnicity; others on theocracy, monarchy, democracy, fascism, socialism, protection of the environment (Greens), etc.
Within a nation, there are a specific assemblages (branches), such as a ministry and/or a regulatory agency, and laws, and/or an institution that governs all the activities within its jurisdiction. These functions include: justice, military, commerce, finance, health care, education, culture and the arts, environment, housing, traffic, family affairs, and so on.
Government regulates everything, including the entire natural and industrial landscape and infrastructure (#4, #5, #6, power plants, roads, railroad, shipping, aviation, communication, etc.), which, of course, includes the ECONOMY. What government supplies and what belongs to private enterprise varies greatly around the globe. Specific business organizations supply everything that humans could possibly want, need, or do. In modern times, businesses of every type developed on a large scale into industries. Agriculture supplies (deliver #12) food and drink. The housing industry supplies shelter. Manufacturing industries/companies (usually corporations) supply cloth, furniture, appliances, cars, etc. Financial institutions supply and manage money, insurance, investment (stock market) opportunities. The health care industry deals with disease prevention, treatment protocols, patient care and healing via medical doctors, hospitals, and the pharmaceutical industry. The media industries (television, radio, newspaper, magazines, book publishing, the Internet) supply information and entertainment.
For almost every physical activity imaginable, SPORTS organizations abound—for men or women and children; for runners, swimmers, weight lifters; for throwing, boxing; for all kinds of ball games, boating, cycling, and so on. SCIENCE & EDUCATION: This field also manifests itself in group behavior (#14), starting with kindergarten and extending to public and private schools, universities, and other learning and research institutions.
The ARTS have many branches (#5) designed to satisfy a wide array of sensory experiences: hearing (music), seeing (visual arts), touching (sculpture), smelling (perfumes), taste (cooking), and so on. For example, in a musical (#5) ASSEMBLAGE, such as those found in orchestral literature, various elements include: style, theme, vocal or instrumental scoring, pitch, leitmotif, tempo, (#4) ARRANGEMENT, and specific key or (#10) TIME SIGNatures (#18), to mention a few.
Here in this condition, everything combined comes down to three (relation, #3) issues:
Who or what belongs to the assemblage (#5) and organization; and
Why it is there at all; followed by the question of
How the system functions.
From these findings an evaluation, which in itself is an arrangement (#4), occurs and thus enables the user of the mega-dimensional model to put the appropriate items in all the other conditions to make the model complete.
There are super-ASSEMBLAGE (#5), such as a galaxy or solar system (including planets); or our own planet Earth, with its continents and oceans; or a country, a city, or a certain infrastructure, and so forth. All these systems are subject to a specific kind of (#6) ORDER.
And research in public opinion (#11, MIND) polls such as the Nielsen ratings (#2) establishes an (#4) ARRANGEMENT of viewership (#5) ASSEMBLAGE) in broadcasting, the demographics (number of viewers) of which ultimately determine the rates that advertisers have to pay.
COUNTER CULTURAL groups (#5) ASSEMBLAGE), such as the Pennsylvania Amish in the U.S.A., live a different lifestyle (#14, #18) from those around them. This holds true for Orthodox Jews, as well as the Hippies of the 1960s.
Social networks like Facebook, Twitter, MySpace, Linked-in, YouTube, Vimeo, etc., are changing the way people communicate with each other in the early decades of the 21st century.
MISFIT organizations differ from the social norm (#6, ORDER) and, in some instances, are considered deviant or even criminal. Examples include the Mafia (Italy, U.S.A.); the Hell’s Angels (U.S.A., Germany); not to mention terror groups everywhere around the world, youth and street gangs, drug and human trafficking cartels, and so on.
6) ORDER: System, structuralism; perception (consciousness)—senses.
Premise: Represents underlying system, organization; order in general; consecutive order, collective order, distributive order; solar system; gravity; quantum mechanics; genetic code, eco-system; clan system. Conformity to rule; liberty; deviant behavior; punishment. Law: Hindu law (classical, modern); Patimokkha (Buddhism); Halakha (Jewish); Canon law (Christian); Sharia (Islam); Constitution (species, personal physical state, national principles). Legal systems; criminal law, contract law, property law, international law; legal institutions, ideology; title, entitlement, royal charter, warrants, mandate, license; contract; tax code; formula; procedure. Method: science, technology, algorithms; protocol, model; principle, norm, tradition; convention, habitual pattern (behavior), and/or disorder, game theory, logistics, tactics, procedures, recipe.
In the sections above, I have established that everything is, in some way or another (#1) CREATed. It is irrelevant here if nature, human ingenuity or a deity accomplished it.
In another condition I want to make you aware that everything is also an ASSEMBLAGE (#5) itself and/or, at the same time, part of other assemblages. In another condition, I bring proof that no matter what, where, and how, there are always ARRANGEMENTs (#4) in many different ways. And here in this condition, I want to emphasize that all of this, in totality, is always a specific kind of (#6) ORDER (organization), which we often refer to as a system. Indeed, everything that exists is part of a system. Human perception (the way we process sensory information), the (#11) MIND as in nervous system, and consciousness itself are part of a system. Next I want to demonstrate the purpose of laws, because they create, protect and sustain systems/organizations.
NATURAL (#6) ORDER (laws) and natural action/reaction (chemical processes, #12 MOTION) connect, separate, or change elements, and/or separate parts by forming a complex whole that develops into different systems. The laws of planetary motion (physics) created our solar system. Each chemical element in our universe has a unique structure (see periodic table) and properties of matter that define its identity, and a state (solid, liquid, gas). On the macro scale, the entire biomass of planet Earth interacts via natural laws defined as an ecosystem. On the micro scale, the genetic code (in DNA and RNA) carries genetic information (#4, sequencing ARRANGEMENT, ACTG) in living cells, translating it into proteins (amino acid sequences) that are critical to life. In metabolism (a chemical reaction necessary to maintain life within a living organism), these proteins have many functions. HUMANS are subject to many kinds of laws, organizations and systems—for example, the genetic code (DNA, RNA, etc.) and many kinds of bodily systems (cardiovascular system, musculoskeletal system, digestive system, reproductive system, and so on). Human beings are part of a kinship system (perhaps a TRIBE and/or a RELIGIOUS organization). Every religion—Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, etc.—is built upon belief systems, which establish unique symbols (#18), traditions and sacred histories, and out of these rich tapestries evolve religious laws and ceremonies. POLITICAL order/policy and the governing of a population within a given territory are always dependent upon the type of political systems, organizations, and institutions operative in a specific area. Tribalism, feudalism, monarchy, theocracy, dictatorship, or democracy—are some of the various political modi operandi that can be explored more deeply here. An ECONOMIC system in any place (COVERING, #19, SPACE, #20, and LOCATION, #21), incorporates a variety of complex systems. Many criteria (principles, standards, organizations) must be taken into consideration—for instance: labor, finance, technological assets and know-how, land resources, infrastructure and the socio-economic agents that participate in the production, exchange, distribution, and consumption of goods and services. These factors are applicable to a particular area as well as on a global scale. Economic systems try to identify, satisfy, and exploit every kind of human need or want. The way this is done reflects itself in a business model.
Anything human beings do has a history/tradition, and from this background EVOLVE (#7) certain standards and organizations. The concept of justice,—along with the struggle for political power—has had a long history, and its legacy varies widely around the globe. For example, the ancient Chinese text entitled “The Art of War” goes back to Sun Tzu (6th century BC) and was still extant up to the time of Mao Tse-tung. For Europeans, historical treatises—from Machiavellian ideas (16th century) to Clausewitz’s (1780-1831) conception of warfare and politics—continue to influence concepts of national and international justice as well as military conflict into our time.
Under the feudal system, formerly free people were forced into slavery on the lord’s estate. Europeans and Americans enslaved African populations, and turned indigenous peoples in the Americas and Australia into outcasts in their own ancestral habitats. In the 20th century and inspired by Karl Marx, communist revolutions—as in Russia, China, Cuba, Vietnam, Ethiopia, and East Germany—advocated class warfare and for a while eradicated monarchy, religion, and capitalism, some to return at the turn of the current century to a different form of political/economic process—one which is still going on.
Starting in the 20th century, international organizations (such as the United Nations/ UN), international law, and international courts are becoming increasingly important on our planet because our world is evolving into a global community. And, of course, these quasi-legal institutions are as imperfect as all the other human laws because they reflect the state of MIND (#11) of their (#1) CREATORs. For example, the Nuremberg trials punished (and rightly so) the systematic targeted killing of civilians by the Nazis during World War II. On the other hand, the bombing and killing of German and Japanese civilians by the Allies remained unpunished.
SPORTS: The modern Olympic competition revives an ancient Greek festival. In the fields of SCIENCE, EDUCATION and ART, Western ideas, standards, and organizations can also be traced back to the ancient Greeks. Aristotle started what became known as the scientific method and applied it to a vast range of subjects, including logic, ethics, metaphysics, politics, and natural science.
For the human (#11) MIND (#6) ORDER usually implies perfect ARRANGEMENT (#4); however, there is often present a parallel and/or opposed (#5) ASSEMBLAGE, such as an organization. One exists to support the established system; and the other, a different order, causes chaos and distraction to the established structures. In human affairs, it is the struggle between the forces of the Establishment to maintain the status-quo and the forces of COUNTER CULTURAL movements to effect change. In nature, it is matter versus anti-matter; attraction versus repulsion; or interrelationship between predator and prey.
7) EVOLUTION: How?
Premise: Represents entire process and development; gradual or abrupt change; astronomy; physical and life sciences; genetics (double helix, DNA, RNA), formative sequence, advancement, progression and regression; social sciences; heritage, tradition, history, biography, legacy; museum, record, artifacts; library, archive, document; scripture, mystery, literature.
Here in the (#7) EVOLUTION condition I want to emphasize that everything that exists in the entire universe (i.e., in nature and in human affairs) is, in one way or another, evolving and therefore also belongs in (#12) MOTION. Nothing is fixed; everything is in flux. In this way, original institutions can become reformed or even eradicated. Concepts described above in the section on (#6) ORDER, convey predictability. Order and organization can actually arise “spontaneously” out of disorder and chaos (VIOLENCE, #8), a process of self-organization.
Every (#5) ASSEMBLAGE is an organization involving a system. Systems—with their underlying structures and purpose, as well as their past, present, and future action(s)/reaction(s) and processes—when understood, can be predicted. But because there is constant, gradual and sometimes abrupt change in any original assemblage (often beyond human comprehension) as it reorganizes itself, we are sometimes inclined to perceive evolution as apparent disorder and chaos. And any major innovation of human invention has the potential to influence everything else. In our time sophisticated developments in electronics and wireless transmission, including computers and smart phones, have/do impacted virtually every aspect of modern life in the world.
NATURAL changes on our planet occur continuously because of the ever-changing state of the atmosphere and weather patterns. Sunshine, cloudiness, wind, rain, storms, and so on, constantly create different conditions that we humans and other organisms must adjust to. The spinning of our entire planet that causes day and night, and the tilting of the global axis toward or away from the Sun are significant factors in the onset and duration of seasons. These natural processes occur on both the micro-level and the macro-level. The whole universe is actually expanding, and entire continents are on the move. The planet’s landscape changes its features due to natural forces (plate tectonics, power of the atmosphere, etc.). On the genetic level, major and minor changes also take place. For example, the smallest change (mutation) in a single base unit of DNA can alter an organism to such an extent that future offspring can eventually develop into a different species altogether.
HUMAN history also evolves in stages (#4, ARRANGEMENT), with hereditary components passing on physical and mental characteristics from one generation to the next. From Stone Age tools (beginning perhaps around 200,000 BC) to technological developments in our own era, each new generation throughout history is challenged by the never-ending and constantly changing circumstances of existence.
TRIBAL history, myth, and tradition of ancient peoples, including the practices of ancient RELIGIONS, set the stage for later development and address, in a simple way, many of the major issues we face today. Rituals, worship, and praying unite the community and serve to synchronize a cosmic connection by developing a timescale (#4 + #9, #10, calendar) by relating these practices to the various seasons. At the same time, such religious practices bind communities together to (#1) CREATE a common identity, predictable habits, and rules of (#14) CONDUCT. They also mark life milestones—rites of passages into adulthood, marriages, funerals, and so on. In its early stage each religion develops an oral tradition, which is often supplemented at a later point by sacred writings (scriptures). In Hinduism (Vedas), Judaism (Torah), Christianity (Bible), and Islam (Qur’an), sacred scriptures are perceived as the word of a god or gods; whereas in certain other religions such as Confucianism (five classics), Daoism (text), and Buddhism (canons), sacred writings are considered human creations. POLITICS and religion have not always been clearly separated. It is only in our modern time (starting with the American Revolution) that the concept of “separation of church and state” has come into widespread use. In most countries of this world, separating political structures from religious institutions and/or practices is still an ongoing process. This Mega-D model is an ideal method for clarifying these evolutionary differences on a global scale.
All POLITICAL systems, everywhere, change or reform themselves through (#10) TIME. Whether these changes are for better or worse depends in a large degree on a person’s state of (#11) MIND. ECONOMIC development is closely related to the prevailing SCIENTIFIC and EDUCATIONAL systems in a particular region. While the level of technology (art, craft, automation) and innovation varies widely around the globe, the overall trend goes towards globalization. Evolution in the field of SPORTS and the ARTS, like everything else, is dependent upon the prevailing culture of a particular TIME (#10), SPACE (#20), and (#21) LOCATION—often with a spectacular period in the past and hopefully with an envisioned resurgence in the future. For example, during the last five hundred years (starting with the Renaissance), art in Europe has been going global. And for modern progressive Western art, the center shifted after the two world wars (1914-1945) from Berlin, Vienna, Paris and London to America, New York. Later Hollywood and the movie industry became the center of entertainment worldwide. What is considered COUNTER CULTURE today may very well be seen tomorrow as pro-establishment, retro, or anachronistic.
The way individual human beings, institutions, businesses, or nations (#14) CONDUCT themselves can result in an (#4) ARRANGEMENT or level in quality of life. For example, the demise of monarchies created republican parties. Karl Marx published his Das Kapital (1867) in Hamburg, Germany. The industrial development of the 19th century and, hand in hand with that, the exploitation of the working class, resulted in organized (#6) labor unions (#5) and socialism.
Adolf Hitler’s reactionary fascist movement (1933-45) regressed to ancient tradition. His book Mein Kampf (1925) was a preview of Germany’s reconstruction after its defeat in World War I: getting rid of the shackles of the Treaty of Versailles, destroying the democratic parliamentary system, and disempowering what he considered to be twin evils: Communism and Judaism. While Hitler planned to have an alliance in the future with the British Empire and extended a new German “Third Reich” based on an eradicated Russian empire, Churchill and Roosevelt saved the Soviet Union by allying their countries with Stalin during World War II. Thus, the old (established) colonialist Churchill and the aspiring new colonialist Hitler together, against their expressed individual will, hastened the end of colonialism. Shortly thereafter, a new kind of world domination spearheaded by the U.S.A. and a united western Europe (NATO, E.U.) under the name of global capitalism (multi-national corporations) emerged on one side of the Iron Curtain, with a powerful Communist empire (the Soviet Union and its satellites) emerging on the other. The Berlin Wall (1961-1989) symbolized the conflict of these two power blocks in the post-World War II cold war. The fall of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent German reunification (1990) finally ended that period.
During the 1970/80s, grassroots movements in Poland and Czechoslovakia—along with anti-establishment movements (68 generation) developing into the Greens, for example, in Germany—were changing the politically inflexible landscape in which the supreme (#2) AUTHORITY of two superpowers (U.S.-U.S.S.R.) dominated the entire world. And now, at the turn of the 21st century, totally different types of political movements are emerging, such as anti-global movements, Islamic uprisings and terrorism (9/11/2001), the Arab Spring in the Middle East, “occupy Wall Street (NYC),” and in Europe the so-called Pirate parties (whose name originated from Internet piracy). These groups are fighting for a more participatory and direct democracy in which the voices of the masses are challenging the established powers.
Throughout history, the formulae for political manipulation were always tripartite (#3). First came the people and their needs and/or wants; then followed the political organization (#5) and its ideological (#6) system; and finally the system created the political AUTHORITY (#2), or representatives for the cause: namely, the chiefs, elders, popes, high priests, lamas, warlords, emperors, kings/queens, presidents, chairmen, parliaments, congresses, legislatures, executive systems, lobbies, and so on. Such (#4) ARRANGEMENT never truly worked for the majority of the population, and they never will as long as modern communication technology is controlled by a few in sync with the media. This is the case because the human desires and needs of large populations are too complex to be represented by a handful of people bound together only by a few issues.
Now, on the one hand, sophisticated but user-friendly computer and Internet technology has actually made direct democracy possible. It is only recently that people have been able to communicate directly with one another on a grand scale and participate (vote) in all manner of political issues without an institution (person, party or lobby) representing them. As a result, it seems that some form of direct democracy is coming sooner or later. On other hand, an unfortunately high degree of interdependence still exists—one in which information supplied about users invites exploitation and manipulation. As a consequence, the widespread misuse of technology has reached an all-time high (low) by rampantly destroying personal privacy and, by extension, seriously undermining individual freedom.
8) VIOLENCE: Key events—chaos.
Premise: Represents specific process; destructive/constructive forces; physics, energy; disorder, disturbance, chaos; supernova, tornado, volcano, earthquake, storm, fire, flood, global warming; drought; killing, sacrifice, self-mutilation, torture; crime, punishment; venom, pesticides, pollution; accident, disease; famine, death; rut (male fight), vendetta, riots, revolution; weapons technology; warfare, law enforcement; protection; accident and life insurance; medicine; memorial day.
Having looked at the (#7) EVOLUTION of everything in its entirety in the previous condition, here in (#8) VIOLENCE we should look at specific occurrences of disorderly forces within the evolutionary process. Political power and brute force (military and legal enforcement, including wars) remain at the core of any political system existing in the world. Actually, the very beginning of planet Earth’s evolution—and everything that followed—is the result of a catastrophic and (#8) VIOLENT explosion of a supernova (star). Every element in our universe, including the Sun and its planets and the life forms that exist here (including humanity in its various stages) resulted from that explosion.
NATURAL violence in human perception is most often experienced as cruel force, which often indicates a change so drastic that it plunges us from the desired established order (natural or human) into the very abyss of chaos and an unpredictable future. In essence, the end result of violence can become a matter of life and death: Are we going to survive or not? Or, are we going to have a meal or be a meal? However, despite the obvious negative consequences of natural circumstances, forces and calamities such as landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flood, wildfires, rain, wind, storms, disease, poison, and pollution, global warming, etc., these violent upheavals can at times provide regenerative benefits for plant life (as in rain or forest fire) and/or increased nutritional value for humans or wildlife in a food web.
In animal mating rituals the fighting is for the victory of the strongest, who will then contribute his strength to the gene pool of future generations. But despite loss of life and/or habitat, catastrophic occurrences in nature can also yield unexpected benefits for surviving humans. Looking at natural disasters from this perspective will enable us to reframe the destructive forces of nature to see that these forces are actually constructing or maintaining a new and different environment. For example, the food eaten (#13) ORGANIC MATTER is consumed (such as nutritious substance from victims’ carcasses) is necessary to maintain another organism’s life. Cultural developments in modern HUMAN affairs do not, as a rule, embrace violent behavior for individual means and ends, except if one’s life or family is threatened. In most cases (but not all, since domestic assault is seen across all strata of society), violence is usually perpetrated by outlaws marked to be criminals. But let’s face the truth: specialization in certain industries—such as farming, animal husbandry, military/law enforcement, and other fields, including scientific research—allows specialized people to do the dirty work (livestock slaughter, military campaigns, prison management, and medical research with animals and/or human test subjects, for instance) on behalf of the rest of the population, and these specialists sometimes resort to cruel methods to maintain/enforce the RELIGIOUS/ POLITICAL/ECONOMIC (#6) ORDER.
Anyone who is in sync with the prevailing system lets the dominating institution (organization) do the enforcement of the prevailing order; and anyone who is out of sync will be punished in one way or another. Those who are able to hide their true feelings (state of MIND, #11) may attempt to migrate elsewhere. In an ancient TRIBAL environment, however, escape was nigh unto impossible because human beings cannot survive or reproduce on their own. And in a tribal context, expulsion was probably the most efficient method of punishment, aside from executing the deviant/wrong-doer. The expulsion could be permanent or for a specific length of time.
In their historical past, most modern constitutional nations have had to solve the problem of merging different tribal affiliations and loyalties into a new and unified entity. Often, religion was used as an effective catalyst for this purpose. On the other hand, a variety of religious belief systems, including divisions within the same religious tradition, often sparked a different kind of conflict and sometimes even war—one based not on kingdoms, empires, or nationalism, but rather on religious division rooted in divergent traditions.
In Europe, Christianity served the purpose of unifying a territory and its people, at least to a certain degree, and even a group of nations into an empire. This phenomenon occurred when the Emperor Constantine [Edict of Milan, 313] legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire. It also occurred during the Medieval period when the various Christian European kingdoms sent armies off on Crusades to "save" the Holy Land for the West. In the Middle East, it was Islam that unified diverse groups under the banner of the Prophet Mohammed. And in the Far East, Buddhism accomplished the same goal. Nothing unifies a nation more than a common state of MIND (#11), language (#15), and an outside enemy comprised of disbelievers, infidels, or heretics.
In our day, a major part of the African continent is still writhing from countless unresolved tribal conflicts (complete with "ethnic cleansing," another term for genocide and politically motivated starvation) within nations that were (#1) CREATed by former European colonial powers, often in complete disregard of religious, ethnic or historical background. In 21st-century Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iraq, the complexity of tribal rivalries—including longstanding and bitter denominational divisions within Islam (i.e., Sunni, Shia)—reflects levels of violence that, for European and American sensibilities, are remembered now as things of the past. It needed a Thirty Years War (1618-1648) to resolve the conflict between German Catholics and Protestants (Lutheranism) by partitioning the nation into religious zones, granting the Protestants hegemony in the North and the Catholics jurisdiction in the South.
Today, without German reparations for the Nazi-inflicted Holocaust, and without U.S.A. backing in sophisticated weapons and financial aid, the Jewish (Zionist) State of Israel would probably not exist. The situation there now is actually somewhat of an anachronism, a throwback to the days of the European Crusades in that area. And because of the long-range capabilities of modern arms technology, Israel will not survive in the long run if its leaders don’t negotiate peaceful terms with surrounding neighbors. Nuclear proliferation can in occasional incidents be delayed, but the process cannot be stopped entirely. Israel’s best protection, ironically, will be the Palestinians and other Arabs in their midst. But the Jewish population is not increasing at the same rate as that of the Palestinians. Jews in the future will be a minority in the State of Israel.
During World War II, America and, to a lesser degree, England were essential in saving Stalin and communism. Likewise, today the most reactionary Saudi dynasty finds its strongest allies in America and Europe. The wealthy Saudis own residences in Los Angeles, New York, London and Paris, and are investing in the economies of the Christian West. It is no joke that countries with a Christian majority at home are now attempting to build and influence a new kind of Muslim nationalism abroad. The 2011-13 revolutions, known as the Arab Spring, received support from Europe and the U.S.A. Of course, in America and Europe (except Northern Ireland) religion is only a side show.
The degree of punishment an institution can inflict on its members is directly related to the power it holds in the dominant society and/or later nation. For example in Islamic Saudi Arabia (2011), women are not permitted to drive; and in Taliban-ruled Afghanistan (2010), women not only are not permitted to drive, but they are forced to wear a burka and receive no kind of education whatsoever. In medieval Christian Europe, translating the Bible into the vernacular language of a region could result in death by torture. And nonbelievers (especially women, marked as witches) were burned alive at the stake. Centuries earlier, Jesus Christ himself was crucified because he attempted to redefine Judaism. In Nazi Germany (1933-45) just being Jewish or expressing opposition against fascism was deadly. And during that period, merely being German—whether you were pro-Nazi or not—could get you killed by the systematic Allied bombing against military installations and civilians alike. In modern wars, everyone is marked for destruction. There are in the 20th century nuclear bombs with 600 times the power of destruction of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs that killed more than 100,000 Japanese civilians in a single day. In the aftermath of these weapons of mass destruction, tens of thousands died later from burns and radiation poisoning.
Our modern world ECONOMY has many benefits, but in this condition, VIOLENCE (#8) we also want to focus on the negative aspects of the prevailing economic system. For instance, it profits immensely from producing weaponry, pollutes the environment, causes industrial and car accidents, tolerates tobacco, and caters to a healthcare industry that takes financial advantage (by charging outlandish fees) of the people receiving medical treatment. The entertainment industry in the US thrives on producing violent movies that are subsequently sold all over the world. And the only people who get the true protection of the law are those who can afford to pay outlandish fees to lawyers and are willing to take on huge legal expenses. People who are not well-off have very limited opportunity to take advantage of protections offered by the justice system.
The field of SPORTS cultivates violence everywhere. Contact sports training is used to make youth fit for fighting wars. And it satisfies the lower instincts (aggression) of boxing, hockey and other sports fans. One country or city beats another. Winning or losing a match can cause riots in certain places. SCIENTIFIC research on human beings, and animals, guinea pigs, rats, etc., employs unseen violence in hidden laboratories and is the dark side of the quest for knowledge.
Many forms of (#12) MOTION constitute a permanent threat to the well-being of organisms on every level—from the smallest to the largest. Meteorites, huge masses of rock hurling through space, have the potential to do real harm to humanity. Meteorites were most likely the cause of the dinosaurs’s extinction as a species. Tectonic movements and volcanoes, both of which cause earthquakes and tidal waves, are deadly. Another threat from motion is found in weather systems in which hot air collides with cold air and (#1) CREATE deadly tornados and hurricanes have a devastating effect. Lightning is another violent and potentially deadly phenomenon caused by electrical charges from storm clouds.
Besides cataclysmic upheavals caused by rocks, tectonic plates, fire, wind, floods, and electrical forces found in nature, motion affects our bodies both internally (as in peristalsis) and externally (as in locomotion). Moreover, human beings and other creatures live under the constant threat of invasion by harmful microbes. Our best defense against ever-present onslaughts of bacterial and viral infections is the consistent practice of hygienic behavior to maintain health and prevent disease. We must also vigilantly do battle against potential invasions of what we consider pests—such as mosquitos, fleas, termites, roaches, rats, mice, squirrels, and ants—that want to move into our homes.
Throughout history, the movements (#12) of various TRIBES and armies have characterized human existence. Tribal migrations and the extension of habitats by invaders have always constituted serious threats to native cultures. In ancient times, for example, Attila the Hun built an empire from the Ural River to the Rhine, wiping out untold natives and indigenous cultures in his wake. The Romans built their Empire with the violent threat of its massive and well-organized armies. In mainland Europe, marauding tribes, such as the Angles and the Saxons, invaded the English Isles, seriously diminishing the native Celtic tribes who lived there.
Later, well-established and over-populated European countries (Portugal, Spain, England, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Germany) invaded vast territories and established colonies all around the globe. These colonies later fomented movements to overturn their subservient status and fought to become independent from their motherland/invader. Today America, once a colony itself and then an international superpower, interferes in local issues everywhere and sets up military bases around the world, attempting to stabilize the entire globe for western political/economic purposes.
9) IMPORTANCE: Key events—constructive.
Premise: Represents a specific process, key events; golden age, commemoration; recall, anniversary, ceremonies; era, century, millennium; time with reference to age; antiquity, tradition, newness; paradigm shifts; milestones, awards; Zeitgeist.
In (#8) VIOLENCE above, we focused on the often unpleasant criteria (according to human perception) found in natural history and (#7) EVOLUTION as well as in many other activities (#14) people are involved in. But as was pointed out, sometimes a devastating event can also have positive side effects. To develop farming, build a town or road, one must alter the natural landscape. In many war situations, peace-loving individuals can turn into killers, or get killed, for causes that evolved out of political affairs they often could not even comprehend. The Western Allies in WWII fought against Hitler’s fascist Germany, collaborating with Stalin’s totalitarian communist Soviet Union. For what? Freedom? Something that is deemed good for one purpose, nation, or person can be simultaneously very bad for another. Try a Mega-D investigation modeled on this kind of paradox, concept or idea!
Here in this condition (#9) IMPORTANCE, I want to focus, as an example, on some of the key events that caused a paradigm shift in the way organizations (natural or human) operate—events that will be remembered for a long time because they set new standards (#6 ORDER) and led to a different and totally new state of (#11) MIND, for a particular (#10) TIME and (#20) SPACE.
The earliest and most important NATURAL events in the creation of the world as we know it are not remembered or celebrated because they are obscure. These mega-events include the origin of our entire universe (billions of years ago) and our solar system, including our planet Earth; the origin of life (microbes); plant and fossil records going back hundreds of millions of years; the appearance of animals; and later the first modern humans some 100,000 or maybe even 200,000 years back.
Any individual HUMAN experiences the date of birth and the day of “till death do us part” as defining moments in which everything changes. The entire timeline of a beginning and a final end sets a pattern and creates a paradigm of existence, one that repeats itself in many other states of affairs we are part of. Key events are: childhood, educational period, ending with graduation ceremony; courtship period and wedding ceremony, with parenthood leading to another paradigm shift in a person’s life.
In TRIBAL societies, cultural traditions already set the pattern (#4) in which individual lives merge with society at large and with the entire universe. In tribal contexts, birth practices and some kinds of initiation are common. Courtship rituals and marriage ceremonies are very much linked, even into our own time, to connect individual lives with society at large. Seasonal rites, celebrations, festivals, including (#16) MUSIC and dance, bring society into sync via (#10) TIME (calendar), and promote cyclical behavior. Cultural events around the world mix natural, personal, religious, and political aspects.
All RELIGIONS worldwide follow the tribal heritage and pattern of combining personal (#9) IMPORTANT key events with those of society at large through myth and/or religious history, and incorporating the rest of the natural habitat (seasons). Whenever a new RELIGIOUS and/or POLITICAL belief (#11) system and/or organization emerges, a paradigm shift occurs, thus redefining traditional customs by giving them new meaning and different names. The benchmarks for what or who is important in any community are indicated by the official public holidays (#10) in TIME, and the names (#18 SIGN, #21 LOCATION) given to a particular time, people, landmarks, plazas, streets, train stations, airports, public buildings, and so on.
ECONOMIC innovations in early farming practices changed the usual course of migratory tribal movements (#12), creating more permanent settlements (LOCATION, #21), and later cities, and with that, brought about other ways of living as well as significant changes in political/religious practices (#14) of the day. Certain significant military victories, important innovations or ideas redefined an entire time-span in human (#7) history. These defining events or periods include, for example, such eras (#10) as: the Stone Age, Bronze Age, Iron Age, Age of the Roman Empire, Middle Ages (Dark Ages, Christian ignorance of scientific knowledge), Age of Enlightenment or Age of Reason, Industrial Revolution, Scientific Revolution, Age of European Empires, as well as the American, French, Russian Revolutions. Today we live in the “Information Age,” and with personal computers and the World Wide Web we are once again experiencing pervasive paradigm shifts.
Some important changes happen gradually over a certain period of time and others in an instant. In our time, at the turn of the twenty-first century, we note the abrupt eclipse of Soviet power and the gradual ascent of American global superpower. The latter is a step-by-step process with many (#9) IMPORTANT key events and implications which can only truly be evaluated in hindsight a long time after the incidents that propelled them. My Mega-D model can be used as a method to analyze these changes and paradigm shifts. Will China be the global superpower in this new century? At this stage, China and the U.S.A. are financially interdependent; capitalist and communist orthodox ideology is dead. For centuries, religious/secular conflict dominated the scene in the West; these days such conflicts are the major topics in the Middle East’s Islamic nations as well as in Jewish (religious and secular Zionist) Israel. Other examples of gradual mega-shifts are global warming, pollution, population growth, post-industrial adjustment issues in highly developed nations, and migratory movements from underdeveloped countries in the South to the North, among other topics.
For a comprehension of British history (this is also true for many other nations), it is customary to define an era by naming it after the king or queen who assumed the throne at that time. For instance, the Victorian Age combines Queen Victoria (AUTHORITY, #2) with that particular era (TIME, #10, ARRANGEMENT, #4), and COVERING (#14) or particular TIME (#10) and SPACE (#20), in which the British empire’s center was England, and London, with the Queen’s palace, its central LOCATION (#21). After WWII, the worldwide empire of Great Britain shrank into little England on the periphery of a United Europe (E.U.). The United Kingdom became a part of the European Union (EU) because the UK had no other choice if it wanted to retain its trading partners.
In our own time (post-World War II, especially at the turn of the millennium), the decline and change of American/Russian/European world domination can be measured by the number of participatory states in the economic world forum of the leading industrialized economic countries. In 1975 it was only the G6 (leading industrial nations); in 1976, G7; 1997, G8; in 2000, G8+5; and in 2008, the number of nations with leading economies was expanded to G20.
10) TIME: When?
Premise: Represents time line (table), absolute time, relative time; time with reference to age; time with reference to season, recurrent time; calendar; regularity of recurrence; geological time, biological clock, bio-rhythm, life span; anniversaries and holidays; Zeitgeist—natural, cultural, personal, religious, political, economic.
To live at a particular (#10) TIME, in a particular (#20) SPACE, and with a particular human populace (#5 ASSEMBLAGE), (#4) ARRANGEMENT, (#19) COVERING the planet—this one central converging point of each person’s existence, in effect, defines the circumstances, and/or zeitgeist (#11, state of MIND) of the entire world population. The intersection of “how many, where, and when” is the tria juncta in uno (#3) RELATION of demographics. In this regard, we have witnessed an ominous escalation in the rate of population growth over the past 200 years. One billion people inhabited planet Earth in 1804. By 1927, 123 years later, Earth had acquired its second billion human inhabitants. By 2011, when the human population reached seven billion, the timeframe for the last billion was just 12 years. Although population growth has slowed down in certain parts of the world, in other areas demographers have seen an astronomical increase in the growth rate.
NATURE is the reference point for human measurement of time. Lunar calendars were first used to define lunar months and are still important for the Islamic calendar, among others. The solar calendar, known as the Julian calendar, became important around 45 BC; it was later revised in 1582 and supplanted by the Gregorian (Christian) calendar, which is more accurate and is most commonly used around the world today. For certain cultures—such as Native American TRIBES, as well as for the ancient Greeks, Hindus, and Buddhists, among others—time emphasizes cycles (Wheel of time and the concomitant concept of reincarnation). Their perception of time is different from the Judeo-Christian concept—one that is based on the Bible, and on the idea that time is linear, with a clear beginning and a final end.
Before the advent of science, RELIGIONS dominated human wisdom and knowledge about everything, including the measurement and importance of time. Christianity divides history into two parts: that which occurred before and that which occurred after the birth of Christ (BC and AD). Islam does the same, with the watershed for events set at Hijra (AH), marking Muhammad’s departure from Mecca to Medina in AD 622. For the Jewish religion, 2012 (A.D.) marks 5,773 years since God created the universe. Horoscopes, in which a person’s future, fate and character are supposedly linked to the position of the stars and planets at the time of that person’s birth, are the conceptual fossils from that pre-scientific period.
In the HUMAN state of (#11) MIND we can define two general notions of time. One is linear, with a beginning and an end. And within this concept, there are patterns, which I have mentioned in the section on (#9) IMPORTANCE key events. Key events are defining moments for a specific person or perhaps even for an entire generation, the most important being elevated into memorials and holidays. And then there is circular time. This is typically a periodic (#4) ARRANGEMENT that can be measured in seconds, hours, days, weeks, month, years, decades and centuries. And everyone within a certain area has to get in sync via rituals, work schedule, school year. Paying: taxes, insurance, rent, electricity, sanitation, phone, TV, Internet, and so on.
Many wage earners are paid by the hour; some by the week or bi-weekly; others perhaps by the month; and a few by the year. We notice that the time factor plays an important part in everything related to modern living: paying rents, taxes (to governments), and educational expenses (school year); deciding when to retire, and getting a pension at a certain age. This sense of time pervades the realization that at a certain point a youngster comes “of age,” and is recognized legally as an adult. At this point he or she can smoke, drink, sue, or be drafted into the military. A POLITICAL system is also defined in many ways by time factors: we bind time concepts by referring to periods of history, as I mentioned above, and, of course, to dynasties—for example, the Shang Dynasty, which ruled China from 1600 BCE to 1046 BCE, and so forth. See History and different schemes to define time: China. India, Japan, England, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, U.S.A., Egypt, etc.
Measuring units of time became more universal (solar, #19 COVERING) when the British established a global time structure and set up global Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). The mean solar time at the Greenwich meridian was adopted in 1884 as the standard time in a zone that includes the British Isles and thereby indirectly declared this location to be the center of the world. However, France ignored GMT because it would have divided Gaul into two time zones. Today in 2011, one of the most obvious examples of how England is out of sync with the rest of the European Union is the fact that its time differs from the continental mainland by an hour.
In a democratic governmental system, the representatives of the people are elected for a certain time period, and in some countries, political leaders can participate in the election cycle perhaps only a few times. The Olympic games are performed every four years, but in different places. Many SPORTS events last a specific time, and certain championship titles are only good for a season. With every advance in SCIENCE, EDUCATION and ART, we find reflections of a certain time and place. Yet the change that we call progress is an ongoing and never-ending process.
In measuring time, modern SCIENCE and technology go far beyond the realm of our normal sensory perceptions: time is expressed in terms of light years, the speed of sound, and about 10 different kinds of seconds; Einstein’s general theory of relativity sees time as relative; other concepts of time include gravitational time dilation, geological time, Ice ages, radioactive decay, set-rate-decay, half-life, and so on.
In more down-to-earth terms, time rules when we have to wake up and when we are permitted to sleep. Time tells us when to eat, what kind of food (breakfast, lunch, dinner) is appropriate, and how long we are permitted to eat at school or work. Our food needs a specific cooking time, and our bodies need a certain time for digestion. The kind of fresh fruits and vegetables we can get is determined by the seasons. Time even determines how fresh food is in accordance with the temperature; fortunately, refrigeration delays that decaying process. Criminals “do time” in prison. Of course, there is much more to time than I can possibly mention here in this format. But in everything we are part of, the need or desire to get in sync is an overriding issue.
Our calendar days (holidays, anniversaries, festivals) are reflective of and therefore promote the dominant culture of an area where the specific calendar is in use, including ancient and modern festivals such as the Olympics, various harvest festivals, and religious or political celebrations and commemorations. In ancient Rome, January was dedicated to a god (Janus), March (Mars), May (goddess Maia), July (emperor Julius Caesar), and August (to Augustus). Throughout the year these celebrations elevated human mortals with the prospect of becoming immortal. Later Christianity innovated the church year in which certain events and people (especially Jesus Christ, and the saints) are celebrated again and again. Before the Christian era, Jewish celebrations immortalized ancient Jewish history, including the Exodus of the ancient Hebrew tribes out of Egypt. Modern Jews immortalized the misdeeds of German Nazis in their calendar worldwide, by annually commemorating Holocaust Remembrance Day. There are certain situations in which no perfect solution exists. I am sure that Hitler would be very pleased for achieving his goal to be remembered forever, since his evil (#11) MIND never distinguished good from evil, a fact which he stated in his book Mein Kampf (my fight).
Each culture, religion, and nation has its specific calendar system (TIME frame, #10), which includes a specific style (SIGN, #18) COVERING (#19) an area (SPACE, #20) and LOCATION (#21), setting a particular state of MIND (#11). Examples include (literature, art, music, ballet, architecture) Classical, Gothic, Renaissance, or Baroque. More modern art styles include many architectural styles also, incluing paintings: Impressionism, Cubism, Expressionism, and Pop Art, and so on.
See also Solar calendar, Lunar calendar, Hindu calendar, Buddhist calendar, Chinese calendar, Japanese calendar, Jewish calendar, Christian calendar, Islamic calendar, secular calendar of the United States, Russia, England, France, Germany, and so on.
In the U.S.A., it is common that (#8) VIOLENT events and/or (#9) IMPORTANT disasters are commemorated, (#10) TIME and time again, thereby leaving an imprint in the state of MIND (#11) of the general populace. Examples of these commemorated events and disasters include: the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese; D-Day (WWII); 9/11/2001; the massacres at Columbine High School and Waco, Texas; the Oklahoma City bombing, and so forth. For a wider perspective, we can take a look at some of the events from around the world listed under massacres in Wikipedia, events which other places and nations (#20, #21) have (#23) IMMORTALIZED for a long, long (#10) TIME.
11) MIND: Who? Why? Perception (consciousness)—senses.
Premise: Represents state of mind, brain; memory, neuroplasticity; personality, psychology, trait, IQ; emotion, experience, craving; intellect, cognition, perception; knowledge, know-how, superstition, attention span; consciousness/subconsciousness; Zeitgeist, faculties, idea, volition; affections, morality; obligation, sentiment, motive, common sense, observance; influence, philosophy, belief, religion; soul; scientific knowledge. Opinion: public/private, political, economic, strategy, conspiracy; wants and needs.
In the (#10) TIME condition above, I have tried to convey how everything there is and everything we do are in some way or another related to time. But, of course, none of my twenty-four conditions has meaning by itself, out of context. There has to be a relationship established with at least two other conditions, and ideally more. The way one takes advantage of these interconnections is a manifestation of a state of (#11) MIND.
Everything humans and animals become aware of, do, or experience leaves an imprint on the mind. These mental imprints can last a long time or can be forgotten very soon. Some impressions linger in a subconscious sphere. The human brain consists of three (#3) main parts, and the forebrain consists of two (#2) hemispheres. My hope is that some neurologists will use my Mega-D model in a very creative way. Remember CREATION (#1) is actualized or potential stimuli. (#2) AUTHORITY filters stimuli, identifies, and also ignores what it deems unimportant and considers secondary input. And RELATION (#3) correlates and tries to make sense out of complex circumstances.
Throughout human history, every type of institution—whether cultural, religious, political, educational or economic—has used the conditions identified here to the fullest extent. I have merely tried to demonstrate the universal aspects of my Mega-D model.
The crux of what we humans do or participate in evolves out of our human needs and wants. Any human system ever conceived tries to fulfill these wants or needs in its own way, thereby satisfying its own requirements, desires or goals for a variety of reasons. Sometimes conflict is unavoidable because different organizations try to fill the same need in different ways. And competing interest groups vie for people’s attention and participation by redirecting the state of mind of their population for their own cause.
The NATURAL paradigm for any kind of animal is universally governed by a state of mind that focuses on evaluating (via sensory organs) its habitat; on securing favorable ways of living; on finding a food source (or avoiding being one); and on perhaps attracting a mate for procreation. Often these activities result in a fight-or-flight situation.
For individual HUMANS, the state of mind is much more complex. Common concerns—such as survival (“to be or not to be”), procreation, finding a safe place to live, and obtaining food and drink—are and will continue to be issues as long as human beings are around. But because of advancing educational/technological possibilities, what we actually need is often superseded by what we want. Likewise, because with the advent of agriculture, daily living has become more or less settled, communal human life without being part of an extended POLITICAL system is no longer feasible. Every political system—from tribalism and monarchy to democracy and dictatorship—exists with many variations. And each creates a specific state of mind. But outside and inside every particular political system there are very different philosophical opinions as to what this actually entails.
All RELIGIONS worldwide and throughout history are based on the dual principle of sacred vs. secular and, as a consequence, natural vs. supernatural states of existence. Another important concept in religious development is that certain people have magical power and/or knowledge and are supernaturally connected. While atheists consider faith in the supernatural bogus, this belief opened up a different state of mind for humanity and led to efforts on the part of believers to remove themselves from the natural world by creating a world of human ingenuity, ideas and vision.
Whatever human beings do or become a part of requires a particular state of mind. And aspects of our existence are constantly changing (frequently because of natural events, education, science, technology, and political circumstances). It all depends on where (#19, #20, #21) we live, when (#10) we live, and who (#2) we are.
At a certain stage in history, people started trading with each other by buying and selling goods and services. Before the adoption of a medium of exchange (such as shells, precious metals, money, credit cards, etc.), ECONOMIC development was extremely limited because it was based on the barter system. The concept that something has a certain monetary value is purely determined by the state of mind of individual humans. And supply and demand are also key factors, especially in free market economies. The essence of any currency is a universal agreement (consensus, #11 MIND) of acceptance.
Certain major innovations resulted in a socio-political paradigm shift requiring a different and new state of mind. The first big leap was the domestication of plants and animals, a seminal transformation in human thought and behavior that had an impact on every level. Early farming changed the nature of the food supply situation from subsistence to surplus. With that one paradigm change in agriculture, the culture and socio-economic structures of just about everything else—politics, religion, education, artistic development, and entertainment— resulted in more individual human freedom for some and enslavement for others. It led to the development of writing, accounting (bookkeeping), taxing, currencies, banking, and the creation of cities, new political structures, and even empires.
At the turn of the 21st century, the field of electronics rules supreme, changing the way tasks are accomplished and merchandise produced. With this level of sophistication comes a very different global mindset for the way people get information, communicate with one another, and entertain themselves—along with an exponential impact on economic development.
A considerable misperception some/most people have is the dualistic mindset that something is either entirely good or or entirely bad; either totally right or completely wrong. However, that kind of simplistic thinking can lead to a dead-end. What is good for society as a whole can at the same time be deleterious for some individuals in that particular setting. What is good or desirable for one segment of society can be adverse for another. One person’s freedom can be another’s suppression. Nations, cities, and/or industrial interests are constantly on a collision course with others, sometimes leading to trade barriers, boycotts, and even wars. Everybody is competing with everybody else. And what is good or bad for one generation or population can have an opposite impact on later generations. Moreover, something that improves humanity in a certain way can also on another level undermine human habitats, for example, by causing considerable havoc to the natural environment.
What can alter established practice and what initiates COUNTER CULTURAL innovation is a mindset that is constantly changing and that finds all kinds of variation within any community, large or small.
In totalitarian environments—for example, Nazi Germany; communist-ruled Soviet Union, China, North Korea and Cuba; Islamic-dominated Iran, Saudi Arabia, and Taliban-controlled Afghanistan; or medieval Christian Europe—affiliation with the ruling forces is not necessarily an indicator of a person’s true state of mind. Under these circumstances, there are no opportunities to survive or make a decent living outside the system-order.
In NATURE, for any element and/or living organism, the place (#21 LOCATION) it resides (#19 COVERING) presents a wide array of situations, CREATING (#1) all kinds of matrixes (#4 ARRANGEMENTS) in my Mega-D model of rows and columns. In the HUMAN MIND (#11), there are innumerable rules (#6) that account for a constant readjustment in common sense regarding how to CONDUCT (#14) oneself in different circumstances.
For the human MIND (#11), the essence of our existence is individual identity. This mega-dimensional model should be very helpful in determining what that actually is, especially for very young people. We are physically made up of (#13) ORGANIC MATTER consisting of flesh, bones, fluids and our entire internal bodily chemistry, including what we eat and drink. MOTION (#12) and CONDUCT (#14) are consistent with the way we move around (employment) and carry ourselves internally and externally. SIGN (#18) includes our name (signature) and other identity-bearing indicators such as: skin, hair, and eye color. SPACE (#20), LOCATION (#21), and COVERING (#19) are concepts that embody our identification with habitat (nationality) and bodily shape and clothing. And our state of MIND (#11) is reflected in our beliefs. EVOLUTION (#7) is the way we change over time; ancestry represents our genetic and cultural origins; and SPEECH (#15) reflects our language and communication method.
Many human organizations and institutions exert a significant influence on the development of our identity. Although a person’s religious identity (supernatural) may be related to an institution, for many people adherence to dogma and religious tradition, custom and/or observance is often regarded as immaterial to the belief in an immortal soul. Political identity CREATES (#1) a cause and imprints it on the SPACE (#20) in which an individual human being resides. The British (today) are often monarchists; the French are republicans. American colonialists were formerly European invaders and loyal monarchists. During the American Revolution they became republicans; yet before their civil war, many were slaveholders. Now some consider themselves to be Democrats; others Republicans, or Independents. The Russians were communists before the demise of the Soviet Union. Before World War I (1914-1918), Germans were monarchists; during the Weimar Republic (1919-1933), democrats; and between 1933 and 1945, fascists. Today most consider themselves Europeans. What kind of citizen (in your imagination) are you?
12) MOTION: How? Perception—senses.
Premise: Represents physics, force, action/reaction; energy; electromagnetic waves, photosynthesis, plate tectonics; earthquake, heat, movement, distribution; synchronization; mechanics, process, transition; waves (light, sound), electricity, growth, cycles, rhythm, breathing; change; circulation, emotion, motor skill, perception (senses) attention span, personal activity; epidemics; migration, pilgrimage, travel; tourism, entertainment; rallies, political movement; campaign, rally, blitz. Voluntary/involuntary action—gesture; services, labor, job; machines, production; revenue; GNP; GDP; research; testing.
In (#7) EVOLUTION, I demonstrated that everything there is exists in a state of flux, ever evolving and always changing. And in (#10) TIME, I wrote about linear concepts of chronology as an ongoing historical process. And I discussed recurrent IMPORTANT (#9) events, seasons, and anniversaries in which human individuals/institutions calibrate natural cycles and events, synchronizing them towards their own behavior in combination with seasonal events and ceremonies, and developing a structured environment with the guide of an institutionalized calendar. And in the paragraphs above, I have tried to explain that the human state of MIND (#11) is the source of our identity (who we are and who others think we are), what we want or need, and what we must do to proceed. And information, whether conscious or unconscious, true or false, determines our behavior. Here in the (#12) motion condition, I want to make the point that everything in our entire universe is on the move. And organisms try to get to the source of what satisfies their need and wants; organisms also get in sync, move to evade, conquer, attract or occupy.
NATURAL motion on a galactic scale manifests itself in our expanding universe—for example, the travel of light, a concept that science uses as a measurement (#4) indicator (light years); and what astronomers and physicists have identified as electromagnetic radiation—all of which serve to reveal the mysteries of our universe. Other examples of galactic motion include the circular movement of planets (gravitational force) around the sun, and for us in particular the rotation of our planet Earth on its tilting axis, alternately exposing us to sunlight during the day and plunging us into darkness at night, thus influencing our climatic circumstances, weather systems, and seasons. On the micro-scale, we find motion in the emission of energy as electromagnetic waves or as moving sub-atomic particles.
On a naturalistic level, we note that animals, in order to survive, move around to get to their food (#13) source and that some birds, fish, insects and other creatures undertake extensive migrations, which are usually dictated by the seasons. All life has a cycle and is in motion, too. Internally, life on the cellular level involves microscopic motion; on a grander scale, all living creatures must synchronize their rhythms with the rhythms of their habitat—namely, the climate, weather system, and seasons, as well as the reproductive and feeding cycles of predators and prey. In addition, we HUMAN beings must also become aware of the implications of certain changes (for example, global climate change) to various institutions as well as the impacts of these changes on thought patterns operative in our sphere—such as economic systems, political entities, and religious (#14) CONDUCT.
Throughout most of human history, when people were limited in their mobility to the land they could traverse on foot or with pack animals, the availability of food was dictated by the environment with its seasonal opportunities; but in today’s global ECONOMY even perishable meat, vegetables, and flowers can be accessed from far away places. In our modern world, foodstuffs and all kinds of merchandise are imported from and exported to remote places around the globe. As a result, it is possible for anyone who has the financial resources to get virtually everything from just about everywhere.
Not only have foodstuffs, manufactured goods (automation), and capital become more mobile; nowadays, people themselves have become more mobile than ever. Whereas in feudal societies serfs were attached to the land that they tilled, in industrialized and developing societies, people commute to and from work, children attend school, and families go on vacation, sometime to exotic sites. It is not uncommon for entire populations—usually from the south, moving to the north (to the U.S.A. or northern Europe)—to migrate from one region, nation or continent to another because of better economic opportunities. In prehistoric times or earlier historical periods during which people lived primarily from hunting and gathering, TRIBES moved around in sync with the opportunities made available by nature. Accordingly, tribal culture is embedded in seasonal rites, celebrations, and festivals.
RELIGIONS are not static; they tap into celestial movements and cycles of nature to create and incorporate seasonal rites, celebrations, and festivals into their rituals. In our society, regular religious services attract believers with the promise of eternal salvation, mystical states, or enlightenment; and they attempt to explain the mysteries of existence on this planet. In many cultures, people of faith express their beliefs by moving about in pilgrimages and processions. These communal movements and other religious services function as public demonstrations on behalf of their particular creeds and/or cause(s).
POLITICAL movements and religious services have much in common and are very often practiced in tandem. For example, since the reign of Henry VIII, the British monarch has been designated as Defender of the Faith and Head of the Anglican Church of England. Any celebration, parade, inauguration, or fundraiser that the king or queen is part of is guaranteed to attract large public interest, which, of course, is enhanced by modern mass media. Likewise, the Saudis of Saudi Arabia are considered defenders of the Islamic faith and, as such, maintain Mecca, the holy city to which Muslim believers around the world bow in prayer several times a day and are required to pilgrimage to at least once in their lifetime. In our time for any political system, the worst and most devastating action in blemishing its own image and reputation worldwide is the restriction of its own citizens’ movement; and, as a corollary, the refusal of the government to permit visitation from tourists outside the country.
Many organizations—religious, political, scientific and educational, business, sports, and art institutions, as well as certain criminal operations, including drug pushers and traffickers—want to attract and involve a large population. The absolute demonstration of mass political power and control is the act of war. In a democracy, elections mobilize an entire population. And whenever there is a demonstration (legal or illegal) or perhaps a strike, the dominant politico-economic system attempts to influence and control its own future and events. Other arenas in which political and religious institutions sometimes enhance or sometimes compete with one another are health care, education, and social services and welfare.
Many activities (#14) that human beings perform involve elaborate choreography (programmed movement) or follow a specific (#6) ORDER and pattern of ARRANGE-MENT (#4). For example, we have rituals for eating and recipes for food preparation. Our working hours and leisure activities are pursued in rhythmic alternation. Sleeping is acceptable only during appropriate hours (not during work time), and even a small child’s temper tantrum often runs a predictable course. Private and public events and rituals observe time-related cycles and often involve individuals and/or groups moving around in prescribed ways. Even positions for prayer are sometime defined, with head bowing, kneeling, and/or prostrations (as in Salah), recommended. All aspects of life are constantly in motion, from the personal to the universal level.
According to current theories in astrophysics, our entire universe is expanding at an ever-increasing speed. Something similar is happening to human demographics and travel. Today’s media and information culture is also expanding its reach exponentially. It took radio 38 years to reach a market audience of 50 million people. For TV to reach the same audience, only13 years were needed. The Internet accomplished this feat in just 4 years. Developing a market audience of 50 million for iPod took a mere 3 years. In social networking sites the exponential growth rate is mind-boggling. Facebook, which was launched in 2004, claimed one billion active users in 2012. In the same year, there were 250 million tweets a day on Twitter. And at this writing, Google is utilized by billions of people all over the world.
There are three kinds of RELATED (#3) MOTION (#12) occurring simultaneously in everybody’s life. One is the internal circulation of bodily fluids, including microbiomes and the functions of heart and vascular system, digestion, spinal fluid, and so on. The second is the way people (#14) CONDUCT themselves in their particular SPACE (#20), which we call their habitat and which is always occurring at a particular LOCATION (#21). The third refers to all of the external motion that is going on around a creature—whether animal, plant or human being, or even any kind of object, for that matter. This can be the motion of and within the entire natural universe, and everything in it.
13) ORGANIC MATTER: Who? What? Perception-senses.
Premise: Represents organisms, biomass; five kingdoms—plant, fungus, animal, protist, moneran (bacteria); food; resources; insects; animals (wild, domesticated, mythical); animal husbandry, agriculture, marine biology; humans (ethnic groups, individuals); ceremonial meals: bread, wine, beer, banquet, feast, fast, taste.
In (#5) ASSEMBLAGE, I made the point that everything there is exists as part of an organized (#6) ORDER or system. And in (#3) RELATION, I emphasized the tri-partite reality of all matter (internal-surface-external); for example, in science: three kinds of plants; in early farming: three field crop rotations; and in traditional societies, three estates: nobility-clergy-commoners. In (#4) ARRANGEMENT, the organizing principle—in this case organic matter—could be related to size, weight, speed, and/or distance; or food chain (web), pecking order, and class; or time, including growth of the world population, and demographics, which is (#19) COVERING a specific area. In (#14) CONDUCT , we see that all organisms (or modes of existence, for that matter) are influenced by their environment. Here in the (#13) ORGANIC MATTER condition, the entire global biomass, including human resources that businesses require, is up for grabs.
The NATURAL reality of all living organisms is found first in the internal life of the organism. Whether plant or animal (or otherwise), the organism operates as a system that can be observed as a universe in itself. For example, we humans have living within our viscera large and diverse communities of organisms (such as colonies of bacteria, some harmful and others necessary for survival), some of which never experience life outside the host body in which they reside. Next we have the surface of the organism, which we identify as its overall appearance. And then we can discuss the external circumstances in which an organism moves about in its habitat (such as, for example, migration; or growth and in plants the role that distribution of pollen plays in the plant’s survival).
There are other universal features in nature—for instance, male-female-offspring. Of course, here in this condition, we can observe every organism’s primal need to obtain nutritional value to sustain itself. While very few plants prey on insects, many species of flora benefit greatly from insect behaviors (for example, the contribution of bee’s in pollination), the plant’s energy/nutrition comes from the (#3) sun, soil, and water.
HUMANS are the most successful and prolific predators of all earthly creatures, and in giving something in order to get something else, they may well have been influenced by examples found in plant life. Plants use fruit, wind, and insects to distribute seeds or pollen to propagate their species. Similarly, human males in contemporary society use organic matter (in this case, dinner and flowers) to advance their intimate relationships. A couple uniting in marriage at a public event in the presence of family, friends, and acquaintances, will also take advantage of the availability of organic matter—in the form of a lavish banquet, with floral displays as part of the wedding. In modern society and in business etiquette, personal relationships are advanced with dinner invitations.
In TRIBAL societies, it is customary (#6, #14) to use food (#13), drink, and entertainment in seasonal rites, celebration, and festivals. Throughout history (#7), customs such as these have been followed by members of the Establishment to consolidate their position in the society at large. HUMAN use of organic matter can been found in numerous other contexts. In their services and ceremonies, many RELIGIONS incorporate various aspects that integrate the blessing and/or offering of food/drink. Certain foods and drinks are encouraged, and others are restricted, such as in fasting. In some cases, religious organizations or personnel make a profit on the production, certification and/or distribution of certain foods or beverages. In Judaism, for example, rabbis charge fees for certifying food products as kosher, even though the ancients who originated the food laws, undoubtedly never heard of certain products (e.g., kosher popcorn). In another context, for certain branches of Christianity, wine production, consumption and profit-making exist in harmony with church doctrine; in fact, for centuries, many monasteries have relied on wine production for financial support.
Moreover, food and drink often play more than an economic role in the life of several religious institutions. In some sacramental faiths, such as Catholicism or Eastern Orthodoxy (and even in Protestantism to some extent, although in some denominations that forbid strong drink, alcohol is replaced by unfermented grape juice), the ingestion of bread and wine is central to the essence of religious belief. For example, accordingly to Christian tradition, God sacrificed his son Jesus Christ to save humanity. The Eucharist (or Last Supper of bread, wine) symbolically reenacts that event and the new Covenant it establishes. In other ancient religions around the world, animals and/or human beings were sacrificed, albeit in different ways, and sometimes their flesh was eaten. Fasting (defined as foregoing ingestion of organic matter to focus on spiritual matters) is another widespread religious practice involving food and the regulation of its ingestion. The Islamic practice of abstaining from food and drink from sunrise to sundown during Ramadan is an example of religious practices involving strict regulation (#6) of intake of (#13) ORGANIC MATTER by adherents.
Harnessing the nature of organic matter is one of the most significant accomplishments in human history. The development of agriculture has also played a significant part in POLITICAL systems all around the world. Because of the surplus made available by organized food production, the socio-economic impacts were enormous. It was only with the emergence of agricultural societies that the first cities were built and monumental architecture was created. As a result of this major paradigm change, migration (#12) was supplanted by land (#19) ownership. People could concentrate on other aspects besides survival, such as enhancing the arts and developing literature. With the advent of a more secure and predictable food supply came bureaucracy and urbanization. Slavery was instituted, and the early empires in the Fertile Crescent spanning Western Asia, Egypt, and India were established.
Animal husbandry, domestication of animals, fishing is another topic that might also be considered here. Food production and distribution is a key factor in any politico-economic system. Food is actually used for all kinds of reasons. In modern courtship, a man treats a lady for dinner to advance his cause. The state dinner is another way to advance political agendas on an international platform.
In today’s modern ECONOMY the food industry is very complex, comprising many different organizations that involve governmental regulation of agriculture (health, #6 codes), food processing industries, wholesale and distribution, research and development (science & education), financial services, and so forth. Gourmet cooking is associated with the culinary (#13, #14) ARTS of food and drinks. And different cultures around the world have their unique styles in the preparation of food, in its presentation, and in traditional dining rituals.
In many metropolitan centers (#21) today, one can find a wide choice of cuisines: Chinese food, Indian food, Middle Eastern, Mexican, Spanish, Italian, German, French, Ethiopian, Caribbean, and so on. In the modern global world, the primary contribution of the United States of America to this hungry planet is a surplus of agricultural products; and to international cuisine, it is junk food, ready-to-eat convenience foods of no or little nutritional value, and genetically modified food.
Human beings are very successful (and handicapped) in whatever they do. Because of a religious MINDset (#11) and the related belief that supernatural reality and events are superior to nature itself, we humans have been on a centuries-long quest to control nature for our own benefit, regardless of the long-term consequences to our own species’ survival as well as that of other diverse life forms, not to mention the ultimate sustainability of the planet. To combat cold, we harnessed fire, developed clothing and housing. Animal husbandry and farming improved the food supply on a grand scale, making hunting and gathering a leisure activity. The industrial revolution (#9) with all its side effects, including the contemporary hazards of polluting the air, water, and soil, can be explained by its success, which in turn now breeds too many humans in an environ-ment of limited size. This problem will escalate as time goes on and as long as what we now call “progress” continues unabated.
14) CONDUCT: How? Behavior, function, expression, role.
Premise: Represents behavior; natural action/reaction and aberrant and/or ritualized behavior; nature and society. Needs/wants; cultural-tradition; pageantry, habit, skill, occupation and/or proceedings; competition; life style: sexual, social, personal/institutional behavior and/or function in/ for children, youth, adults, elderly; service, process, communication—religious, political, economic, edu-cational; misfits; conspiracy; ethnic; celebration, mechanism; processes; managing:
In the (#13) ORGANIC MATTER condition above, I explained that there are many (#4) ARRANGEMENTs, and/or levels of existence: internal, surface, external and, of course, we have to add micro, intermediate, and macro habitats of organisms. Here I want to combine (#14) CONDUCT, (#12) MOTION, and (#10) TIME to convey a sense of the rhythms by which humanity synchronizes itself (#3) RELATION) with nature, other individual humans, and society at large. Some evidence of synchronizing conduct can be found when human communities observe seasonal rituals and anniversaries. And then there are the rhythms within our own personal beings—physical manifestations, such as our heartbeat, or feelings of beauty and/or sexual desire; an impulse to eat or drink, the need to visit the bathroom, as well as the psychological impetus to socialize, compete, recreational activities, sleep, or work. In modern society, synchronizing behavior is evident when people commuting to or from work create a rush hour—a phenomenon similar to the flow of our physiology. Synchronization also occurs in menstrual cycles when a group of women live together, as in a school dormitory. Ultimately, what all human conduct or behavior comes down to is a complex combination of our individual and/or collective states of MIND (#11) necessary for any kind of social activity.
The essence of most personal activity is the fulfillment of individual needs and wants; and with that, comes competition in many animal/human activities. Educational and sports activities prepare a person physically and mentally. Artistic activities result in sensory and emotional impressions and expressions. All religious activities can be explained by a need for protection, transcendence, and/or eternal salvation. In economic activities, anything can create monetary value, and therefore can be bought or sold. And all political activity is essentially the governing of a people, property, and/or a specific territory. Moreover, a very (#9) IMPORTANT key event in the cultural development, including the arts, of a society could become a catalyst for another alternative leap in the mode of existence, introducing a paradigm shift, one that will be remembered and perhaps even commemorated for a long time.
In NATURE there are on our globe many types of habitats (#19) COVERING an area inside an organism, or on its surface (skin and/or planet). There is life in caves, rivers, lakes and oceans. And there is life in and on the soil, in and on plants, swarming over the Earth’s surface and flying or floating in the air. There is life everywhere, including the Antarctic, as well as marine life in the sea thousands of feet below sea level. Whatever the environment that constitutes its ecosystem—whether grasslands, mountains, woods, deserts, seashores, oceans, coral reefs, and so on—each inhabiting plant or animal must synchronize its conduct in a specific way for survival according to the (#6) ORDER which constitutes the circumstances of a particular area. In short, the lifestyle of a creature is related to the ecosystem in which its species, including humans, resides.
For (#17) INORGANIC MATTER, every action or reaction is ruled by the laws of physics and chemistry. For (#13) ORGANIC MATTER, the natural (#6) ORDER of physics and chemistry is also important, but there are other aspects that I previously pointed out in the section on state of MIND (#11)—aspects which are manifested in the wants and needs of organisms, animals and humans alike. In human affairs as well as in some social animal bands, whoever or whatever is deemed by general consensus to be most beneficial to the common wants and needs of the group often becomes part of the mechanism that enables the entire organizational system to perpetuate itself.
But what exactly are our universal human needs? What do we really want? Who, what, or how do we supply it in the best way possible? And how do we handle one of the greatest problems of all: the situation in which the needs and wants—of the natural world, of a person or of a group of people—interfere with the needs and wants of others. Here we have the basis for every type of conflict or competition that exists—whether the (#14) CONDUCT is found in nature, sports, the arts, politics, religion, science, education, and business (and commonly referred to as competition), or identified in the deviant behavior of human beings (and labeled a crime).
Every organism/human has physiological needs concerning bodily functions, habitat, and safety. Self-actualization, identity/participation, and procreation are also essential. Our HUMAN existence and way of living are dependent upon the ecosystem in which we reside. Different landscapes and bodies of water create unique opportunities and challenges, and synchronizing oneself to one’s environment is an absolute necessity. However, because of human physical (#7) EVOLUTION and the advancements of technology and science (and with that economic, political, religious, cultural, (#9) IMPORTANT historic key events), diverse changes in one’s (#11) MIND or in the physical/political landscape occur at a different pace in different places.
Yet no matter who someone is or when and where that person lives, there are a few universal factors that are applicable at all times and everywhere throughout history. For example, starting with TRIBAL culture (secret societies) and continuing up to modern military practices and conduct found in fraternal organizations, we find that VIOLENT (#8) initiation rites are imposed to ensure that newcomers accept submission to the group (and prevailing social (#6 ORDER) and that they experience permanent bonding with the group. The required sacrifice of personal autonomy is expressed, oftentimes in painful bonding ordeals and/or demeaning rituals. Other universal bonding rituals (from ancient times and continuing into the present day) include, among others, the giving and/or receiving of gifts, the performance of art, games, the embellishment or mutilation of the human body, and the use of special passwords and/or greetings.
In any social (#4) ARRANGEMENT, political system or revolutionary movement, there are followers and leaders. At the beginning, most new systems or movements have a charismatic founder, or at most several leaders. The same is true for any kind of religious system, starting with tribal culture and ending with revealed religions, including today’s cults. This is also true for a band of chimps, orangutans, lions or wolves. For chickens and other birds, flock leadership is found in the pecking (#6) ORDER.
Regarding behavioral deviations in human affairs, including addictions, I want to point out here that any change, for better or for worse, begins with a conduct that initially ran counter to established standards. If the behavior is considered successful or deemed an improvement, then society calls it progress; if not, then society labels the proponents of such change as misfits, heretics, traitors, or criminals. And what is deemed MISFIT behavior is always founded in people’s state of MIND (#11). Often social organizations, in one way or another and to various degrees, decide to take care of the unfortunate within their domain, even if little or no discernible evidence is found that this course of action will benefit society at all.
In NATURE these concepts of conduct are relatively simple. No one can argue with natural laws; if a certain behavior doesn’t work, extinction is the rule. The only way to adjust to these realities or take advantage of them is by getting in sync with one’s own body and its natural habitat.
In TRIBAL cultures, the power of the elders, matriarchs and/or patriarchs, chieftains, and traditional healers to regulate behavior is considered absolute and can be avoided only by escape or personal emigration. In RELIGIOUS matters, the standards of acceptable conduct have not only changed over the course of history, but differ greatly from place to place and among the different systems of faith. In seeking acceptance, religious organizations typically claim to offer several kinds of services—spiritual, educational, and physical or mental health assistance. In the case of POLITICAL systems, it is interesting to note that adherents of all types of governments often claim that their system (and their system alone!) is run by public servants who are dedicated to achieving the greatest common good. In the past (and even today), it was/is not uncommon for sacred and secular authorities to work together. The modern trend (and sometimes conflict) especially in industrial countries is toward a secular society in which there is separation of religion and state. This policy is often justified to ensure an extended degree of individual freedom, especially in the case of dissenters, minorities, and nonconformists.
In psychology, a habit is an automatic reaction to a specific situation. Here, in this (#14) CONDUCT condition, I would like to make the reader aware of the connection between a habitat in SPACE (#20) and TIME (#10) and habitual behavior.
15) SPEECH: Communication; sound, sight, touch, smell, taste, chemical.
Premise: Represents vocal behavior, acoustics, sound waves—including infrasound; and non-verbal communication—pheromones, echo location, radar, body language, sign language; communication (animal/human); linguistics, language: vernacular, slang, dialects, plain speech, conversation; story; writing—alphabet, word, Braille, grammar, formal—rhetoric/elocution/public speaking; sermons, prayer, silence; inquiry, argument, opening-closing statement; libraries; bureaucracies; the media: town cryer, billboards, telegraph, newspapers, magazines, radio, TV. Personal: mail/phone/internet.
In several different conditions discussed earlier, I attempted to establish that what really makes humanity tick is our wants and needs. Three (#3, RELATION) of these prime motivators are concerned with self-expression: the need to communicate, the desire to acquire information, and the wish to influence people and/or public opinion. These needs can be satisfied in part by language, by various kinds of media, and by all kinds of ART forms. One major factor—see (#9) IMPORTANCE of key events—that has enabled humanity to advance so far above other species is the passing on of one person’s experience and revelation to others and/or to the next generation. But hand-in-hand with information, however transmitted, comes a good deal of misinformation. Often times this misinformation originates from misperception, or is deliberately used to accomplish a desired goal that could not otherwise be achieved.
Language and speech manifest in many ways because we name everything we know or can identify. For instance, in the curriculum of the Western medieval university, the introduction for all of human communication was the “trivium”—see (#3) RELATION—a required course of study comprised of grammar, rhetoric, and logic. And for me, the intermediary person (#2 AUTHORITY) and/or institution is the inter-connection which links cause and effect and provides the underpinnings of any social organization. For example, Marshall McLuhan’s watershed book “The Media is the Message” captured the Zeitgeist of the 1960s and became the buzzword on radio and TV for more than a decade. With the development and global expansion of the Internet during the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the primary forum of discourse and the indisputably dominant source of information has moved from the traditional broadcast media of radio and television to the World Wide Web, with its myriad opinionated blogs and, in diminishing degree, to magazines and newspapers.
NATURE: Animals communicate with sound, chemicals (scent), and body language. These non-verbal cues (#18) are the unspoken language of the animal kingdom—from insects such as ants and bees, to amphibians such as frogs and toads; from reptiles such as lizards and gators to birds of all feathers; from aquatic mammals such as whales and dolphins to land mammals such as dogs, cats, horses and primates.
HUMAN: For human beings, the use of language is innate—that is, hard-wired in the brain. Babies, who absorb language at a rate that would astound even the most polyglot of scholars, are able to speak within the first two years of life and can perceive and manipulate basic grammatical structure by age 3-4. Language is designed for communication. Among other functions, it is employed to describe various aspects of a person’s identity, including: physical (sex, age, physical condition), psychological (#11) MIND (character, personality, social stratification, religiousness), and geographical (#20) SPACE aspects (dialect, ethnicity, nationality), etc. For centuries, the question has gone unanswered as to whether one’s language determines the way one thinks, or whether one’s thought patterns determine one’s language. As they say, it’s a question of semantics!
TRIBAL: Tribal cultures have experienced the emergence of a secret language and mystic expression in which a secret society distinguishes itself from the rest of social organizations and later evolves into a group of noble class, or mind, birth, and rank.
RELIGIONS: The early development of speaking (oral tradition) and later of writing (sacred scriptures) is often clouded in mysterious secret language and religious rites in which only initiates are admitted and can understand. For example, in ancient Greek and Rome and later in Christian Rome (Latin), the exclusivity accorded to clerics was undermined by the Protestant Reformation (begun by Luther), which soon led to the translation of the Bible into vernacular German, and thence into many other vernacular languages. Before this time, preaching in church was the only method used to produce believers. But Gutenberg’s paradigm-changing printing method (employed to produce his pioneering replication of the Bible) using movable type changed communication on every other level also—the impact of which can perhaps be best compared with the electronic revolution in our time.
POLITICS: In the U.S.A. any election, starting with the primaries, is a battle of words about which candidate an America citizen should vote for. But what candidates promise and what they actually deliver often do not match at all.
The ruling political class in the U.S.A. today is populated mostly by attorneys who draft legislation and pass laws in Congress that favor themselves. In effect, they have designed for the citizens of their country a way of life that is virtually impossible to sustain without the intervention of lawyers. For example, no one can get married or divorced, make a major purchase (such as a house or other real property), or execute a business contract without the participation of members of the Bar Association. In most instances, issues involving injustice or legal conflict cannot be resolved without payment of incredibly high fees to lawyers. Communication is often deliberately obfuscated by distorted and highly technical language (legalese) to ensure that those who are verbally (and legally) unsophisticated will be unable to speak in court on their own behalf. Thus a monopoly on legal representation is created—a monopoly that, in effect, disenfranchises anyone who has not studied law. The ordinary citizen or layperson cannot break through this bottleneck designed by lawyers because he or she is incapable of speaking their language or writing in their twisted jargon. As a result, in virtually all court proceedings, a pro se case (by outsiders) can/will be dismissed on a mere technicality. There is virtually almost no justice at all for people without considerable financial resources.
ECONOMICS: By the end of the 20th century, vast ECONOMIC influence was wielded by print and broadcast media: newspapers, magazines, book publishing, radio and television; and before the proliferation of television, by newsreels shown in movie theaters. However, in the first decade of the 21st century, traditional media’s stranglehold on information has been gradually undermined by the uncensored and instantly accessible COUNTER CULTURE of the Internet (World Wide Web) with its mega-search engines (such as Google), as well as by the rampant popularity and unprecedented expansion of the new social media: Twitter, Facebook, Linked-in, MySpace, Eons, Vimeo, YouTube, and so on. Within these open and interactive forums, anyone can set up his or her own web site, become a blogger, or start an online newsletter without major capital investment. To the increasing dismay of many established industries, no longer are radio, TV, movie studios, publishing corporations and distribution houses the power brokers they once were. In a matter of just few years, the so-called “spin doctors” who influence public opinion on a myriad of issues have multiplied, growing exponentially from a few major players to an enormous pool of info-glut mongers. Just keeping up with a small part of this onslaught is too much to handle, even for the most voracious of gatherers.
Almost every place on Earth is a unique cultural area with its own widely respected literary icons reflecting various states of (#11) MIND and influencing certain types of (#14) CONDUCT in PLACE (#21) and TIME (#10). All languages, including Chinese (the most commonly spoken first language on Earth, with some 1.2 billion native speakers), unify the culture, (#19) COVERING a certain (#20) SPACE and (#5) ASSEMBLAGE of people. English—an amalgamation of Latin from ancient Rome, Norman French from the medieval period, and the West Germanic languages spoken by early tribal settlers of England combining the dialects of the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes—is now used by 400 million native speakers around the world. The English language now dominates global culture in travel, science, electronics, and pop culture everywhere. It is also important to see and analyze the global impact of Spanish, French, and Portuguese. Before the widespread homogenization of cultures during the last century, there used to be thousands of different languages all around the world. Now every day, native languages are dying out.
Over the centuries, sound utilized effectively resulted in human speech. Another significant step in humanity’s (#7) EVOLUTION in communication and record-keeping was the development of symbolic SIGNs (letters, #18) used on (#17) INORGANIC MATTER (#19) COVERING a tablet of clay or perhaps on vellum (parchment) or paper (papyrus).
These days, bureaucracy results in a better organized and (#6) ORDERed (#7) EVOLUTION in economic and political systems everywhere. However, red tape and excessive procedures that serve only the self-perpetuating activities of bureaucrats, comprise the dark and evil side of organizing.
16) MUSIC: Communication; musical sound, hearing.
Premise: Represents perception of sound/silence; animal/nature sounds, including infrasound, infra-sonics; pitch, timbre, rhythm, melody, musical composition (style), harmony (tonal/atonal), form (monophonic/polyphonic/serial), dynamics; notation; instrumentation, genres—popular; classical; symphonic, programmatic; opera, jazz, dance; instrumental/vocal/electronic; song—art, folk; secular/sacred/patriotic; solo/ensemble/orchestra, musicology; socio-musicology, ethnomusicology, anthem.
In the (#15) SPEECH condition above, I made the point that communication is an essential need and affects our sense of identity, as well. Art, and in this case music, has a similar universal effect. And in the sections on (#2) AUTHORITY and (#14) CONDUCT, I wrote that whoever fulfills our needs and wants in the best way acquires a prominent position in society. Music is often used in connection with other art forms or activities, especially in the context of entertainment, performing arts, religious services, processions and political parades, etc.
Throughout history and around the world, animals and humans alike listen to and make musical sounds. Every age and place has spawned a unique musical background for its inhabitants. In the field of opera alone, there are distinct genres—Chinese, Italian, French, German, Russian opera, as well as Spanish Zarzuela, to mention but a few. European operatic works and other masterpieces of classical music are admired and performed around the world—in Japan, Australia, the U.S.A., Latin America, and many other places. Today American popular culture—for example, jazz, Rock and Roll, Rap and YouTube entertainment, etc.—has exerted an enormous impact around the globe, not only in music, but also in movies and the visual arts.
NATURE’S animals, especially birds, communicate with music. Making use of subtle variations in their song patterns, they find their mate, stake their territory, and warn their offspring and others of intruders. Whales, dolphins, frogs, certain insects, and cats sometimes make music that is actually a territorial battle cry. Bees are famous for their dance style and complex rhythms that inform the hive in great detail about pollen and nectar locations.
Most HUMANS around the world experience some kind of music. Musical taste is very much influenced by a person’s cultural environment. There is religious music, wedding music, party music, dance music, funeral music, and so on. The music someone listens to or performs can indicate when and where a person lives and also indicate that person’s specific state of MIND (#11), social status, or set of circumstances. But such clear distinctions can often become blurred these days because of modern recording technologies, radio, TV, elevator “Musak,” globalization, and so on.
TRIBAL drums were used for communication (see “talking drums”) in the early development of long-distance communication.
RELIGIONS: The roots of the performing arts we know today were initially formed as religious rites and ceremonies. Sacred music was developed over centuries and is still promoted and sponsored by religious institutions. Some religious organizations—for example, certain conservative Islamic sects—prohibit music in any musical style other than that found in the muezzin call to prayer from the mosque minaret. Yet in another Muslim tradition—namely, that of the ascetics and mystics—other musical styles are employed for inspiration, as in the elaborate dances of the Whirling Dervishes.
POLITICAL uses of music can be found in rousing patriotic tunes, national anthems, and military bands. In the United States, Hail to the Chief is played when the President arrives for an important occasion. The Battle Hymn of the Republic successfully combines religious, political and military themes. The same holds for other nations, such as: France—La Marseillaise; Britain—God Save the Queen; Italy—the chorus of the Hebrew slaves (“Va pensiero”) from Verdi’s opera Nabucco; and so forth, for many other countries. Over the last hundred years, some national anthems (reflecting changing political systems) have changed. Before the advent of high-tech warfare, anti-artillery tanks, and drone aircraft, it was not uncommon to find pipe-and-drum corps, as well as buglers and trumpeters employed on battlefields to convey battle strategies and communicate commands. Even today military life is still structured around musical forms that wake up the troops and signal when soldiers are to march, charge, retreat, or sleep. And a mournful rendition of taps is played at the graves of fallen soldiers.
ECONOMICS: The music and recording industry supplies all types of music according to the level of demand by consumers. The formats are varied—from live performances to DVDs, from CDs to vinyl records; and now, in addition to radio and TV, there are apps on cell phones, and 24-hour online streaming. Thanks to extensive media coverage and new recording technologies, people can listen to music at any time and virtually anywhere on the planet from their radios and TV sets, in stores or on elevators, and via iPods, smart phones, and computers. Today’s music—from opera to Hip-Hop, reflects the gamut from the highest to the lowest cultural (socio-economic) standards. But in the United States with the demise of traditional music education in the public schools and the extensive cuts in governmental support for the arts around the world, the economic base for classical music has been eroding at an alarming and perhaps irreversible rate. Soon only the music that appeals to the least sophisticated listeners (masses) will provide any economic incentive for production.
Every CULTURAL area used to have its unique music style. But now with globalization, musical taste has become more and more universal.
The fields of science, education and sports also utilize music. To see how important music is in these contexts, one needs only to observe the elaborate half-time entertainment segments of high school and college football games, not to mention the superstar-studded extravaganzas of the Super Bowl playoffs. In terms of music’s application in scientific contexts, it is evident that high-budget and wildly popular futuristic films such as Star Wars, E.T., and Avatar have incorporated film scores of incredible intensity and imagination. [See Academy of Music, musicology, patrons of the arts, etc.]
Who is the ultimate (#2) AUTHORITY in musical (#1) CREATION? The composer? The performer? What about the composition itself? What about the sponsors who introduce and support the project? How important are the actual instruments (#17) on which the music is performed? How critical is the specific (#14) CONDUCT of the performers? What about the role of the audience? Does the consumer serve as the final arbiter of musical taste? What about traditions, the role of critics, the media, and the recording industry?
17) INORGANIC MATTER: What?
Premise: Represents matter, galaxies, stars, planets, astronomy; geology, periodic table; chemical elements, minerals, metals; rocks, gems; soil; fluids, gases, air, geography; natural resources; stuff; materials, artifacts; tools, instruments, machinery, armaments; money supply, budget; shelters, structures, furniture; appliances; personal items; documents; sacred articles; architecture, visual arts; infrastructure, financial markets.
The combined conditions of (#17) INORGANIC MATTER, (#18) SIGN, COVERING (#19) convey different aspects of the same concept. A musical instrument is made of matter, and has a shape that is also a sign. This manifestation, in turn, includes musical notes and sounds that are at the same time covering a music sheet and a specific sound area. Or, for another example, consider this: a landscape is matter, has a visual signature or signs, and covers an area. Before Einstein’s relativity theory was posited, any aspect of the physical world could be (#4) ARRANGED and measured in time, distance, and mass. The industrial landscape originates in the mining of minerals, oil, and gas. Buildings, factories, power plants, and cities, shape the skyline and power grids, railroads and highways, as well as aviation routes and sea lines. Through all kinds of media (TV, radio, newspaper, Internet) communication is covering space (and cyberspace). The nexus of any modern economic system is a nation’s currency. Matter equals money; sign is the official currency denomination ($, Euro, Yen) covering particular nations and/or global economic activity.
NATURE’S inorganic matter considered here in my Mega-D model embraces everything—galaxies, stars, our Sun, planets, Earth, all forms of inanimate matter, including the elements we ingest and the objects we use in daily living.
For natural SCIENCE (i.e., chemistry, particle physics and astronomy), there is a standard model (#6 ORDER) of the fundamental working of the world as we know it. One is the periodic table, which defines and codifies the chemical elements by their (#4) ARRANGEMENT in (#6) ORDER of atomic number. This table constitutes an (#5) ASSEMBLAGE of just 90 elements existing naturally on planet Earth which make up everything there is.
HUMANS need certain chemical elements (carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, zinc, copper, and maybe other chemical substances/compounds called vitamins and drugs) for the physiological processes of the human body, and these elements are absorbed from the atmosphere, as well as from water and food. Personal items—including clothing, footwear, jewelry; perhaps an umbrella, a wallet, and tools; phones, a car, perhaps a boat, various household and/or office appliances, and so forth—are also considered essential to everyone’s life. One’s personal home consists of an (#5) ASSEMBLAGE, comprising perhaps a living room, dining room, kitchen, bedroom, bathroom, play and utility room, maybe a yard. All that space is furnished in an appropriate way for its intended purpose.
Every TRIBAL society or culture shares a geographical (#20) SPACE and, out of this, an evolving pattern of (#14) CONDUCT which utilizes or reacts to the natural circum-stances and resources available to the group. For example, in the past, indigenous people such as the Eskimos (Inuit) in Alaska/Canada or eastern Siberia lived in igloos and wore unique clothing fashioned from skins and furs. But traditional costumes and customs have been replaced today by contemporary lifestyles. Over the centuries, the process of reshaping of natural matter into tools and artifacts of cultural value has been essential for human evolution everywhere.
All RELIGIONS throughout history have incorporated sacred artifacts and/or attire in their belief systems. Sacred landmarks, buildings, and objects are also an important part of worship and prayer.
Marshall McLuhan stated in his book Global Village (1989) that “we shape tools and the tools shape us after.” During the Renaissance, the stonemasons and artists of Middle-aged Europe came to the realization that without sacred artifacts and visual art, without templum (Latin for “open or consecrated space”)—temples and churches, sacred music, and sacred scriptures (literature)—there would be no worship of or reverence for God or Christ. This is also true for other religions as well. This realization was a milestone in secular “Humanism,” one that set the standards for the “Age of Enlightenment” (16th century Europe), influenced the Freemasonry movement, and spawned ideas that culminated in the American, French, and Russian revolutions.
Any POLITICAL system incorporates many different kinds of public buildings for specific affairs: legal and justice, military force and armaments, for example. Likewise, clothing can indicate the structure of a society and its political system. For example, one can easily ascertain both the departmental affiliation and the position of a public servant by the uniform he or she wears. Ensuring the supply and stability of money (central banking system), collecting the tax revenues (budget), and developing and maintaining the entire infrastructure—roads, railroads, bridges, tunnels, shipping and aviation routes, waterworks (dams, levees, flood control, drinking water supply), power plants and power grid, waste and recycling activity, including mining—all of these functions give concrete witness to the success or failure of service in any political and/or economic system.
ECONOMY: The essence of most economic activity hinges on the availability of natural resources (climate conditions, forests, soil, fossil fuels, rocks, minerals, wind, water, sunlight), tools, production/services/skill, and distribution. Agricultural and human resources are comprised of (#13) ORGANIC MATTER manifesting itself in the food supply, the labor force, and their management. However, machinery, factories, and an effective industrial infrastructure are INORGANIC (#17) assets. With the invention of currency, everything has some value, including money itself. In modern economics, we find that financial investment and an effective banking system are at the top of the entire economic structure. Credit rating, which is an economic (#4) ARRANGEMENT of/for individuals, businesses, and entire countries, determines interest rates or the unavailability of capital.
Many human activities can be associated with artifacts. For scientists, NATURAL artifacts can be anomalies in the visual or aural information they perceive. For archaeologists, they serve as important clues to ancient human cultures. In my Mega-D model condition, (#22) INTERMENT reveals HUMAN burial customs and grave goods as concrete ways of telling the story of human evolution and also of TRIBAL cultures of the past. These artifacts/art in turn present evidence of RELIGIOUS practices and (#7) EVOLUTION, which includes POLITICAL domination and control/ownership of a specific (#20) SPACE (#21), the natural resources, and individuals within that area.
18) SIGN: What? Perception—sensory stimuli
Premise: Represents cognition; astronomy; geology; biology; geography; electromagnetic spectrum, periodic table; DNA, RNA, phenotype, pheromone; hormone; morphology, sensory info; cue; pollution, sight, smell, touch, pain, taste, flavor, sound; symptom, symbolism, archetype; label; style; color, form, shape, pattern, texture; symptom; gesture, language—spoken, written, letter, information; ideograms; indication, identity; signature, fingerprint, name; male/female, insignia; flag, sign, awards; decorations; logo, trademark; coat of arms; crest, crown, scepter, orb, relic; icon, trophy, brand; number, letter, code; title.
The condition (#18) SIGN deals mainly with sensory perception, cognition, and the interpretation of something. For humans and also to a certain degree for animals, something real is often exchanged for a symbolic interpretation—for example, in a figure of speech (metaphor), in which one object or action is used to replace something else.
Here, I personally want to make the following statement: Without symbolic perception, interpretation, usage, and interaction, there would be no social (#5) ASSEMBLAGE, organization, and social (#6) ORDER of any kind. This fact is especially true for social animals and, of course, holds true for humanity and its various and sundry organizations as well.
One very important stimulus (sign) for human beings is also significant to most other living creatures on the planet including plants—namely, light. But the way light is processed varies widely throughout time and place. For instance, for a plant, the position of its light source gives direction to attain sunlight for photosynthesis. For mariners, lighthouses stand as beacons to give direction and avoid shoreline hazards. And in our day, traffic lights indicate when to stop or go; and, of course, light is used to illuminate our homes, streets, work places, and so on. Religions use fire and/or candles for symbolic purposes. In literature, art and theology, the concept of light and dark is extended to represent good vs. evil, wisdom vs. ignorance, truth vs. falsehood. And in modern personal entertainment, people use a fireplace and candles to create a pleasant atmosphere. In ancient Egypt, the first monotheistic religion (whose sun god was Aten) turned the circular solar disk into a sacred symbol. In modern times, the “Age of Reason” in 16th century Europe is called a period of the Enlightenment. From the very beginnings of human social organization, powerful symbolism has been harnessed to convey ideas, qualities, and values in the establishment of a social (#6) ORDER.
The story of symbolic usage, interpretation, and interaction goes hand-in-hand with the process of social (#7) EVOLUTION and the formal (#14) CONDUCT of society.
The first and most essential idea to separate human evolutionary development from natural reality was the conceptual elevation of a supernatural state of existence. At the dawn of scientific knowledge, concepts and images of religion, myth, and superstition were all woven into one tapestry.
The forerunner of modern astronomy was astrology. For ancient observers, the constellations and movements of celestial bodies were thought to impact human affairs as well as individual personality. Alchemy, another precursor of modern scientific discipline, used signs for the natural elements and, like astrology, related them to human personality types. Fire stands for quick- and bad-tempered, or passionate natures. Water represents unemotional and calm temperaments. Earth stands for melancholic (and therefore sad) souls. Air represents those who are cheerfully optimistic. Everybody wants to end up in heaven.
Of course, modern SCIENCE uses mathematical symbols, letters and numbers as, for example, in the periodic table of elements. And symbolic interaction is also part of teaching. To mention just few other disciplines whose spheres emphasize and employ signs and symbols, we must include: mathematics, physics, astronomy, archaeology, biology, psychology, criminology, and economics, etc.
NATURAL signs and signals abound in the animal kingdom and include those related to reproduction (mating rituals), the search for food, and territorial defense and attack. All of these instinctual activities depend on the correct identification of predator and prey, methods of attack and defense, and distinguishing attributes of species, such as shape, color, scent, temperature, and sound.
Claws, jaws, horns, poisons, chemicals, nests, colors, and shapes comprise the animal’s arsenal and are especially important when the creature is signaling a message in territorial disputes or sexual pursuit. These animal-specific identifiers also strongly influenced human symbolism, which can still be seen in uniforms, costumes, and ceremonial attire (royal, military, political, religious, etc.).
HUMAN (#14) CONDUCT is dominated by our identity and by the culturally inculcated behavior patterns related to etiquette, courtship and marriage, as well as many other rituals that are reflections of the social (#6) ORDER. Human communication via sound and written symbols is actually codified (#6) expression and impressions. Everything we know we name by reducing something very complex into something extremely simple by labeling it. But identifying and labeling something does not necessarily reflect what it truly is, does, or means.
Accordingly to our passport, our identity is filled with personal symbolic descriptions: our name, signature, physical characteristics, place of birth, nationality, primary residence and street address, by number, national emblem, religion, and so on. The way people dress, design, and furnish their residences, as well as perhaps the car they drive, can signal to everyone who a particular person is, or pretends to be. Even in our modern times, different generations, professions, social classes, including nationalities, can be identified by certain characteristics. And the way someone moves around reveals to a certain degree the level of personal pride and physical health. On the other hand, feeling pain is the most convincing sign that something wrong is going on within our body.
RELIGIONS make extensive use of symbols, sounds, artifacts, and architecture associated with various kinds of worship. Religions rely on sacred words, texts, and objects associated with devotion, prayer and meditation. Over time, all religions amass a history, and out of this history emerge an evolving tradition and timescale, and a calendar of events, including festivals that mark highlights of celebration and/or important anniversaries.
POLITICAL symbols are in evidence everywhere people or their artifacts are found. Such symbols include: a title, or award, decoration, crown, crest, eagle, emblem, flags, national colors, celestial or terrestrial objects, flora, fauna, likenesses of human figures, artifacts, abstract forms, and inscriptions, and uniforms. In modern law enforcement and contemporary military protocol, for instance, a symbol identifies a person’s rank and unit by dress code. The contemporary “American dream” (perhaps of a house with a picket fence, etc.) is a symbolic ideal of what present-day folks think America could or should be. Less materialistic in their outlook, native aboriginal Americans/Australians look not for dream houses, but rather for signs (omens) of foreboding in their dreams.
In the world of ECONOMICS, advertising agencies develop symbols, such as corporate logos, to communicate the value and identity of their clients to consumers. For a long time, money has been a symbolic method or currency of exchange. Brand names (trademarked symbols), chain stores (such as retail and service industries, restaurants), and other formula businesses (franchises) signal to customers what to expect.
Every ART form, artist, and cultural period has its own specific style. Yet art and the rest of the world often end up on a collision course with government, religion, and the more conservative elements of society. A primary cause of this conflict is that those who are satisfied with the status quo rarely appreciate creative change. For example, well into the 20th century, America was still reeling from the negative impacts of Puritan Protestants who emigrated from England and Germany to settle in North America during the 16th and 17th centuries. Despite other attitudes to the contrary, these Puritans had a severe and lasting influence on America by censuring moral beliefs about pleasure, sex, and modern artistic expression.
Likewise, Orthodox Judaism, Catholicism and Islam in the 21st century are totally out of sync with the rest of the world. Because of global communication and tourism, a chasm of monumental generational differences opened up in the Middle East (spring of 2011), in which reactionary movements like al-Qaeda, the Muslim Brotherhood (including the Iranian Islamic establishment), and others found themselves confronted by modern civil rights movements. Many political/social movements around the world are symbolically called “color revolutions” (see Wikipedia) in the former U.S.S.R., Middle East, Philippines, and so forth.
For a sports team, color and uniforms emblazoned with each player’s name and/or number help to identify who participates in the game. Identifying T-shirts, jackets, cap are worn by spectators and fans who want to show support for a specific club and team.
On the other side of the track, street gangs around the world use specific colored items (clothing and tattoos) as emblems for identification. And angry skinheads and bikers have adopted the swastika (sun symbol), previously used by Hindus and German Nazis.
19) COVERING: What? How? Perception—sensory.
Premise: Represents astronomy, atmospheric layers, planetary orbits; Earth’s crust (plates), continents; rocks, geology; soil, habitat; plants, biology; topography; shape, water systems; wind/ocean currents; meteorology; magnetic field, existence in space, shelter; skin; face; make-up; personal items/adornment, odor; perfume; clothes, uniforms, costumes, ceremonial attire; covering an area or event (sound, written reports, images); receptacle; geography: physical features, political map (language, demographics, infrastructure); media coverage, law (jurisdiction), insurance.
In the previous section above, I set out to show how (#18) SIGN are utilized not only as a stimulus but also as an essential component in perception, in consciousness and in establishing characteristics of identity. Sometimes these signs are very close to home and based on our true perception—for example, in skin, eye, or hair color. At other times we may try to explain phenomena beyond human sensory experience. For instance, when looking into the night sky covered by stars, we might group them into ASSEMBLAGEs
(#5), and specifically in (#4) ARRANGEMENT known as constellations. Yet individual stars are hundreds of light years away from one another (one light year is 5.9 trillion miles, 9.5 trillion km) and therefore have no discernible relationship, apart from their being illuminated celestial energy sources that are located in the same direction when viewed from certain parts of Earth.
We often name NATURAL (#20) SPACE after what typically (#19) COVERs a specific area. For instance, we describe everything that orbits around our local star, the Sun, including Earth, as part of the solar system. Likewise, we name a biological community of interacting organisms an ecosystem. We might refer to a landscape in such terms as, for example, mountain ranges, grasslands, polar regions, tropical areas, tundra, caves, forests, deserts, oceans, lakes, or rivers. In another context, we may identify objects, plants, animals, or humans by shape, pattern recognition, personality, size, color, and habitat, in which case we may associate a specific area with the creatures that reside in a particular habitat: i.e., birds and insects dominating in the air, fish in the waters, and trees as part of a forest.
Our natural environment exists and is (#4) ARRANGED on many levels, from microscopic to the grand scale. It is on the mega-scale that astronomers measure space/time in terms of the speed of light’s MOTION (#12, #10) traveling in years (light years). And it is this macrocosm that embraces the entire universe—replete with all of its stars and galaxies, including our solar system; the planet Earth, with its landforms, oceans, water, and atmosphere; with its aggregate vegetation, animal and human populations; with its vast and increasingly man-made coverings such as concrete, metal, glass and other materials that comprise cities, agriculture, and infrastructures. Such is the grand and multi-faceted OVERING (#18) of our planet! It is impossible for the human (#11) MIND to conceive of (#20) “SPACE” without anything in or around it, and equally difficult to imagine that ninety-six percent of (#17) MATTER in our universe is considered mysterious dark matter, the constitution of which is unknown to humanity.
The HUMAN body is protected not only from harmful radiation by the Earth’s encircling atmosphere, but also by layers of its own skin, which serves to hold together the body’s interior systems. For most people, a good part of their skin is covered by apparel, make-up, jewelry, and so on. Our residences are covered constructions, and we use various coverings (slipcovers, bed sheets, etc.) within our homes. We name a room for the purpose it serves—living room, bedroom, bathroom, or closet—and furnish and decorate (cover) it accordingly with carpet, wallpaper, and paint, and the like. Because of the way we use language, part of our individual identity is connected to our distinctive patterns of (#15) SPEECH, which in turn are linked to the habitat in which we reside. Human beings also establish personal identity by means of intrinsic or extrinsic coverings: i.e., skin color (race, ethnic background), dress (fashion, style), nationality (flags, insignia), etc. Shelters and structures are used for protection from the environment, while the characteristic style of these edifices further underscores the identity of a person or group. Moreover, the (#20) SPACE, (#21) LOCATION, and neighborhood of one’s dwelling place become an integral part of an individual’s civic identity and nationally protected environment.
In terms of personal covering, human beings have over time devised a myriad of identifying identity and status markers. To this end, for example, a Native American may adorn himself with a war bonnet made out of feathers for official gatherings or ceremonial rites. Likewise, by observing identifiable dress codes, many TRIBAL people around the world choose to display their status and membership in a specific group, despite outside pressures to conform to other more ubiquitous standards of dress. There is also the link to a specific habitat that a specific cultural dress code can reinforce.
All RELIGIONS have a dress code (#6) and prescribe the use of certain items associated with prayers and worship. And the proponents (members, adherents, or believers) of a particular religion are part of a community covering a specific territory. For instance, in the Americas, Australia, and Europe, Christianity succeeded in displacing the native pagan religions. In India, Hinduism became the defining religion; throughout the Middle East Islam dominates; and Israel, now a Jewish homeland, is a virtual island surrounded by Muslims. Of course, the entire story is much more complex, and to demonstrate the complexity of these issues using my mega-D model is beneficial.
In manifesting the prevailing (#6) ORDER by the demarcation of borders and boundaries, POLITICS and RELIGION have played an important part in the way our world is shaped and divided, both geographically and politically. For example, the history of European territorial expansionism reflects a symbiotic relationship between colonialism and the spread of the Christian gospel. In contrast to the professed precepts of Christian charity and brotherly love, the Western ideology of world domination and economic entitlement was also embraced by religious institutions and endorsed by Christian preachers in their sermons. As a result, colonialism eventually spread over most of the globe, along with its heedless promulgation of human slavery and unbridled exploitation of natural resources. Since its inception more than 500 years ago, Western colonial expansionism not only brought “civilization,” medical science and industrialization (diminishing TRIBAL supremacy) in its wake, but also covered the earth with victims, blood and tears.
Military organizations and law enforcement personnel, except secret police or undercover agents, can be identified by their dress code (uniforms), and the (#4) ARRANGEMENT #6) ORDER within is clearly defined. (#18) SIGN and emblems, awards and decorations denote rank. Prisoners wear outfits of shame and are frequently given just a number.
Civilian dress codes can be much more subtle, with most corporate dress codes requiring a suit and tie for men and a suit or dress for women. Nevertheless, civilian or clerical rank is often indicated, for example, by special collars or habits, lapel pins or flags, as well as by fraternal insignia on rings or medallions. And elevated titles of address—such as Mr. President, Your Highness, Your Honor, Your Grace, Doctor, and Professor—serve to cover an individual’s status, thus confirming identity and sometimes sovereignty. On the other hand, negative appellations and demeaning monikers—such as “Babe,” “Boy,” “Bitch,” “Chink,” “Dago,” “Faggot,” “Kike,” “Nigger,” “Wetback,” or “Whitey”— indicate a deliberate attempt to disempower a person or lower his or her perceived status.
POLITICS and ECONOMICS combined create zoning laws, with commercial areas sometimes covering entire regions that are used for industrial development. While the ideal in our modern world is a global economy in which everyone benefits and individual corporations or businesses gain a market share (thus promoting competition), the side effects of mining, drilling, and industrial production on an extended or complex infrastructure often lead to the degradation of habitat, with concomitant and often irreversible pollution of soil, air, rivers, and oceans. The undeniable reality of global warming and the greenhouse effect of humankind’s carbon footprint attest to the importance of valuing and preserving the natural coverings of our planet.
In contemporary broadcasting and mass communication, we are constantly exposed to compelling images and (#15) SPEECH that are covered by the various media: television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and the Internet.
Because of modern science and technology, we are now able to recognize and utilize components (#19) COVERING our natural world that former generations did not pay attention to or even know to exist. Some examples include X-ray, fingerprints, DNA, the electro-magnetic spectrum, celestial maps using optical astronomy, radio astronomy, infrared astronomy, ultraviolet astronomy, gamma-ray-astronomy, and so on. All of these technologies have the potential to leave their mark on our way of life, and on the face of the Earth itself.
Covering condition has an extremely wide range. Light (SIGN, #18) is covering space. Landscape area is covered by certain elements, chemicals, weather conditions (climate), rocks, plants, animals, human population, and so on. Letters and words are inscribed upon (COVERING) inanimate MATTER (#17), such as a piece of paper or a monument made of stone. Certain laws are associated with and cover a specific (#14) CONDUCT, LOCATION (#21), and/or describe the legal limits of person’s AUTHORITY (#2), called a jurisdiction. Insurance coverage exists in health care, liability issues, or traffic laws (#6). A person’s body is covered by their skin, make-up, clothing, jewelry, and so on. Political domain (territory), computing domain name (Internet addresses), as well as cultural domains exist in a certain kinds of cultural activity: communication, language, and mass media; science and education; religion and art; performing arts, sculpture, painting, literature, and music.
20) SPACE: Where?
Premise: Represents the entire Universe, physical and life sciences; astronomy; geography; hemispheres; outer space, galaxies, solar system, planets; Earth: landforms, continents, geology; biology; flora; fauna; the human body; tribal habitat; kingdom, empire, state; Holy Land; national/multi-national entities; war zone; business district; media coverage; infrastructure; blogosphere, cyberspace.
NATURAL space on a galactic scale includes our solar system and, within it, planet Earth. Our planet has many geographical divisions. [See above (#19) for additional information.] The planet itself consists of (#17) INORGANIC MATTER inhabited by (#13) ORGANIC MATTER. All of the planets are in (#12) MOTION, corresponding with other celestial bodies in (#10) TIME and (#20) SPACE. And organisms (including humans) are obliged to be in sync with these natural rhythms.
It is nigh unto impossible for our human perception to imagine space without anything in or around it. We cannot conceive of infinite, limitless and endless (#20) SPACE and (#10) TIME, with no boundaries, and without beginning or end. Instead, we rely on the universal idea that everything originates in the beginning, and unavoidably comes to an end, which is an (#4) ARRANGEMENT, including a timeline.
I personally speculate that on the grand astronomical scale there is never an absolute beginning or end, only change, periods, stages, and transformation. Our universe in space is just one among an infinite number of others. Black Holes and/or wormholes are the gateway between myriads of universes. The centers of all galaxies have Black Holes. In my estimation, the Big Bang was or is nothing more than movement: a big flush between different inflating and/or deflating universes.
An outer space observation/perspective reveals an infinite numbers of stars, and every star is actually a sun. There are about 100 billion galaxies in our universe, and our home galaxy has at least as many stars as there are galaxies. Our Sun (which from another perspective far out in space looks like another star among many) is the gravitational center of our solar system, of which Earth is a part. Putting it into my Mega-D model, the universe, stars, galaxies, planets and every kind of matter—all amount to something being (#5) ASSEMBLED, having a specific (#6) ORDER, and (#7) EVOLVING in (#10) TIME and in (#20) SPACE.
Earth, oceans and atmosphere, the geology of the planet, landforms, climate, vegetation, and many eco-systems (#19) COVER our planet. The spatial division of all matter and objects—and the state of existence itself—is always (#3) tripartite: internal, surface, and with every object or event occurring in a relative position and direction, within a (#20) SPACE-TIME (#10) continuum.
The greatest philosophers and scientists of all time—Aristotle, Alhazen, Newton, Leibniz, Berkley, Kant, and others, including Einstein—often had diametrically opposed conceptual frameworks about the relationships of matter-space-time. This Mega-D model could be used for clarifying these differences. Because of modern scientific discoveries and instrumentation (astronomy, physics, biology and engineering), we can now begin to explore ideas regarding what constitutes spatial circumstance of MATTER (#17), SPACE (#20), and TIME (#10) range—from the diameter of an atom or a DNA molecule, to the distance of quasars extending virtually to the edge of our universe, and everything in between.
SPACE (#20) in the context of an individual HUMAN is also (#19) COVERed, (#5) ASSEMBLED and (#4) ARRANGEd on many levels. Starting with the interior of about 200 distinct human cell types, there are between 50 and 75 trillion cells in the human body. Every single human cell has an interior habitat, and many kinds of bacterial flora (indigenous microbiota) inhabit our body. The adult human harbors about 100 trillion microorganisms on the skin and mucous, and most of these microorganisms have never been cultivated, even up to the present day. There are different bacterial species in our dental plaque, intestinal flora, as well as in the nose, mouth, vagina, and so on. Perceived as a host, the human body consists of a universe unto itself, with many different habitats (kingdoms) and inhabitants. At this point, humanity cannot decipher many aspects of biological symbiosis associated with human beings or their normal flora (mutual benefits) and other populations that cause opportunistic infections, disease, distraction, and threats to the wellbeing of the host. In addition, these biological encounters are capable of causing suffering, disorder, and even death. The human body becomes colonized by bacteria beginning at birth and experiences a constantly changing environment thereafter due to the age of the host, diet, and cultural conditions. An interaction of invading bacteria and a protective bacterial flora in different areas of the body can foster unique ecological situations. Sometime protection is effective, and other times it fails.
I distinguish here again between three (#3) different concepts: internal habitats and anatomical systems: skeletal, muscular, nervous system, endocrine system, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, reproductive, etc.; surface structures: full body (skin, hair), head, torso, arms, legs, feet, etc., including sensory systems for orientation: eyes, nose, ears, skin, hands (touch), etc.; and external environments: natural habitat, social environment and institutions; family; religion; education; political; and economic constructs—including all kinds of cultural and/or organizational habitats.
Our internal spatial circumstances are constantly changing due to (#10) TIME, which determines age, and by migratory MOTION (#12, colonization), which also happens on the external geo-political, geographical scale. The way members of our species cope with such change is defined as the (#7) EVOLUTION of a human state of existence. The (#9) IMPORTANT key events that alter our (#14) CONDUCT are: technological innovation and development (such as the use of navigation, shipping and exploration) that occur in sync with religious/political force and/or missionary work, and communication. EVOLUTIONARY (#7) transformations are brought about by catalysts that impact education, foster language, create new and different states of (#11) MIND, and lead to empire-building (or today, to the proliferation of multi-national corporations), subsequently requiring border changes (and their meaning) on a global scale. Of course, all of these changes occasionally cause upheaval and (#8) VIOLENCE, and often wreak havoc in the form of resistance, conquests, war, and revolution.
Families evolved into clans, later to be absorbed into tribes. Different tribes merged and united, thus creating kingdoms that sometimes evolved into empires. Many kingdoms eventually changed into modern republics. Without a doubt, all of these developments have environmental and geographical implications because constantly changing territories and borders must then be redefined. Moreover, some human beings—and occasionally entire kingdoms or nations, spearheaded by their armies—are caught up in the process of migrating, invading, or otherwise extending their power and influence into new and different territories. Other related topics include: Tribal habitat and migrations; religious realm, sacred space; heaven, hell (underworld); and/or the global spread of a religion, such as Buddhism, Christianity and Islam.
POLITICAL space is a concept that refers to a specific area in which a certain genre of political (#6) ORDER is dominant, or/and has jurisdiction. If necessary, political jurisdiction is enforced by (#8) VIOLENT means through the established political (#2) AUTHORITies and (#5) ASSEMBLAGES such as courts/police, inspectors, and military.
And everybody is subject to local law enforcement. For example, if you live in Ohio, no other country on planet Earth, no matter how powerful, has jurisdiction over you. Accordingly, if the U.S.A., Israel, and other countries don’t respect these laws in reverse by interfering in other national jurisdictions, they break international laws. However, such interference is common practice today in the fight against what some call Islamic jihad and others call terrorism.
ECONOMIC (#20) SPACE evolves (#7) out of commercial activities (#14), producing goods and services, and creating trade routes. Trading goods and services develops into a market, for which the exploration of natural resources (#13, #17) is a precondition. In modern times, scientific research and education are fundamental to keeping the workforce on the cutting edge of development.
CULTURAL space could be defined as: the world of ideas, social institutions, religious or civic; scientific research and education; unique artistic production, which is in synch with local customs, including some individuals or groups who are challenging established standards. Yet what is considered deviant behavior—defined as activities that are either considered a crime or should be avoided—varies widely around the globe.
In contrast to earlier populations throughout history (#7), the majority of human beings in today’s global environment are able to encounter totally different spatial (#20, #21) circumstances, cultures, and environments. Because of new electronic innovation, the human state of (#11) MIND is continuously changing, and everyone has to constantly readjust to different kinds of people, populations, environments and situations.
In the old days, to hear other people’s opinions, you had to go somewhere else. Today, everything comes to you, if you want it. Thanks to the media: radio, TV, newspapers and the Internet, you can now have in the comfort of your own home different world views, politicians, wars, natural or human disasters, cultural or natural events, even sexual encounters with other people. With today’s technology, you can drive in your car or walk on the street in Tokyo and listen live to the Berlin Philharmonic orchestra performing in Germany. Theoretically, you can be in Buenos Aires on the street and simultaneously go shopping in Peking. International financial speculators (including investors) use sophisti-cated electronic systems in the most efficient way for the benefit and sometimes to the detriment of the global community.
In one way, certain locations on planet Earth are more important than they ever could have been in our historical past. On the other hand, to be located (#21) in a central place is no longer considered essential because of the global Internet.
21) LOCATION: Where?
Premise: Represents specific space; center; black hole; geography; environment, habitat, existence in space; presence, absence; nativity, place of habitation; region, country; rural area, urbanization; town, district; headquarters; capital city, holy city; domain; estate. District: military; jurisdiction (legal); fire; ambulance; business.
Above, in the (#20) SPACE condition I explained that a multi-level ARRANGEMENT (#4) of different kinds of (#5) ASSEMBLAGE of MATTER—both INORGANIC (#17) and ORGANIC (#13)—is (#19) COVERING (#20) SPACE. Here in this section on (#21) LOCATION, I emphasize a specific space within the larger ARRANGEMENT (#4): namely, in our human MIND (#11) as a focal point and center. LOCATION (#21) and AUTHORITY (#2) have a lot in common because it is entirely up to our state of MIND (#11) as to what should be recognized and given important status, and attention, and what is to be ignored. Every COVERED (#19) area requires a specific type of CONDUCT (#14) in relation to the natural habitat, political circumstances, religious institutions, economic possibilities, and so on. All of this exists in accordance with a certain kind of (#6) ORDER that is directly or indirectly given or enforced by the (#2) AUTHORITIES.
Far away, mysterious, out-of-this-world places used to be considered deities or thought to be inhabited by spirits and were perceived as ruling all aspects of life, both natural and personal here on Earth. Many people in our own time still believe in astrology and horoscopes. They hold the opinion that life is influenced by Stars (constellations), our Sun, Moon, and planets: Mars, Venus, Jupiter, Pluto, and so on. Places above in the sky, in heaven or beneath the earth (hell); mountains, a spring, perhaps rivers and oceans—are believed to affect life on Earth. Of course, the influence is there, but in a different way from how our ancestors perceived it.
In NATURE concerning (#17) INORGANIC MATTER, the concept of LOCATION (#21) described here in my model applies perhaps just to the place where something is or where it belongs. But for organisms (#13), on the other hand, it is one’s state of MIND (#11) that determines a feeling and desire to habituate or inhabit a particular place. This mindset is somewhat akin to a bird’s attitude about its nest or that of other species in regard their dwelling place and territory. Animals and humans alike have a territorial mindset and at times aspirations to explore beyond. Natural elements and organisms can only truly be conceived in relation to where they occur.
It is HUMAN to consider the place where we live as the center of the universe. And at the same time, we must give credence to other locations that we and our community depend upon, such as the seats of government and justice; places of worship, learning, health care, and other social services; the workplace, and the places where food, drink, and merchandise comes from or can be acquired. Locations where there is art, culture, and opportunities for recreation and great entertainment can be enjoyed, whether close by or far away.
In our time and especially in countries that are industrially developed and well-off, people universally require a certain standard to consider a place suitable for life. They need to have shelter for the family. They need at least the basic infrastructure of roads; a reliable supply of water and energy; phone and Internet connections; and a means of waste disposal. To be a viable option for habitability, a location must also have law enforcement and offer residents the possibility of making a living. Other requirements include the availability of merchandise for everyday needs, such as food, drink, clothing, entertainment, and so forth.
Throughout history, every person who resided in a specific location (for a short time or for a long duration) faced three fundamental geographically related (#3) circumstances: an individual’s personal habitat, a home and a neighborhood, a kind of environment that at least to a certain degree is predictable; a wider, an extended region impacting a person’s life directly, but perhaps less safe or appealing than home; and an outside geographical area that is perceived as a foreign, strange and often unknown reality, and which could be considered a serious threat when encountered. This logic of a triad (#3) division expresses (#9) IMPORTANT paradigm shifts because environmental-technological-and political circumstances are constantly changing. And every generation has to find its own way of living.
In ancient times, TRIBES would constantly migrate to find and adjust to appropriate living conditions. Hunting and gathering were the means of survival. But prehistoric cave paintings point to evidence of less transient settlements in very early human history—findings which are frequently being discovered all around the world. ART and RELIGION seem to be on the forefront of grasping and/or escaping natural reality and shaping this world to reflect human ideas and concepts by using a variety of tools and methods. The first big boost for permanent human settlements was the development of agriculture. The Neolithic revolution in the Middle East fostered not only a more secure food supply, but also, through architecture and engineering, the first city states and concomitant changes in the POLITICAL demarcation of a territory as well as its social organization, thereby changing the landscape forever.
The history of humanity is marked by the redefining of natural reality towards human needs and wants by altering Nature itself for human purposes. A significant step in this process was the advancement of agriculture and animal husbandry, and, of course, the subsequent development of cities. And from this artificial restructuring of the landscape (#19, #20) also came increasing control over plant, animal, and human life (#13), as well as the desire for power on the part of one segment of society (an elite class that entitled themselves with special status) to control and exploit the rest of the people in their purview. These emerging societies domesticated not only plants and animals but also human populations.
This process in which one part of the population takes advantage of another part continues into our own era. But the way it is done—and who does it—changes over time. Here in the location condition, everyone should become aware of the IMPORTANCE (#9) of key events, and the role that a specific location played in terms of territorial (#4) ARRANGEMENT. We should also seek to find its reflection in the social (#6) ORDER and related institutions such as religious, political, and economic structures. For example, the promise of riches prompted by the discovery (#1) of gold triggered the exploration of the American West. As a result, many boomtowns sprang up over night, only to be totally abandoned later.
The significance of established locations changes over time as a result of migrations of populations and because of political actions, such as wars, treaties, and economic development related to territorial evolution. In our own time, a method of ranking and ARRANGING (#4) countries can be found in the Human Development Index (HDI) of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).
According to its purpose and mission, any given human institution may attempt to be represented in the territorial (#20) (#21) EVOLUTION (#7). For an individual HUMAN family, this means personal property, including a home in which someone resides. A RELIGIOUS institution, may try to establish sacred (#21) LOCATION (places) to represent the home of deities, such as celestial bodies, mountains, rivers, trees, groves; or pyramids, shrines, temples, synagogues, churches, cathedrals, basilicas, abbeys, monasteries, mosques, stupas, and holy cities.
POLITICAL power (concentrated in the home of its holders and stake-holders) results in castles, fortresses, palaces, chateaus, the White House (U.S.A.), town halls, houses of parliament, the Kremlin (Russia), the Reichstag (Germany), Westminster Hall (England), Capitol Hill (U.S.A.), courts, military bases, government and corporate headquarters, ministry of armed forces, agriculture, energy, commerce, etc., and creates political landmarks (towers, columns, triumphal arches, monuments), as well as the infrastructure (a mixture of political and economic means) of harbors, canals, dams, railways, airports, roads, bridges, power supply (grids), and buildings.
Of internationally important places, we can count the UN headquarters in New York City and other significant locations of the UN around the world. Wall Street dominates the global stock market, with other stock exchanges around the world also wielding influence on the global economy. Detroit is/was important for the U.S. automobile industry. In Germany, Wolfsburg is important for Volkswagon. In American culture, Hollywood is famous for its movies. Bollywood (Mumbai/Bombay) has a similar influence on India’s culture.
In the human (#11) MIND, any specific place is (#4) ARRANGED in an (#6) ORDER of (#9) IMPORTANCE, having its roots in the territorial (#7) EVOLUTION of the (#5) ASSEMBLAGE of places in relationship to the rest of the world. Capitals are the center for the government. Harbor cities are used for import and export. There are also specific locations for manufacturing particular products.
On the grand scale, cosmopolitan cities often evoke an interest that goes far beyond the nation itself. Rome, London, Madrid, Paris, Lisbon, Vienna, Berlin, Hong Kong, Jerusalem, Mecca, and their attraction increased or decreased in proportion to the importance of that place with regard to the rest of the world. For example, of these cities mentioned above, their international (#4) ARRANGEMENT changed drastically because of (#9) IMPORTANT key events in the political (#7) EVOLUTION (history) of the World. Berlin was the most important center (#2, #21) of continental Europe during the Nazi period. Yet by design of the victorious nations, it became in the post-war days the most pathetic and divided city. Now in a united Europe (E.U.), Berlin is regaining some of its former glory, this time in a peaceful way. Hamburg’s Saint Pauli district is the biggest red light district of Europe. Hong Kong’s importance preceded China’s rise on the global economic scale (#4), as other new centers of commerce and industry emerge in Asia and South America.
Mega-cities are actually assemblages (#5) of many different local towns. For instance, in New York City, each of the five boroughs has its own special and very distinctive flair, reflecting the people who live there, their lifestyle and their architecture. And within a borough, there are many different districts, worlds within themselves. Yet these districts are not static. Certain urban neighborhoods, such as Little Italy, are getting smaller by the day because other areas, such as Chinatown, are expanding. And Orthodox Jewish areas, because of population growth, are also getting bigger. On the other hand, Germantown in New York City has all but disappeared. Harlem, traditionally the home of low-income Black and Spanish people, is changing, too, with the influx of yuppies and gentrification. In Manhattan alone one could/can find a financial district, as well as districts for garments, diamonds, wholesale meat, homeless, flowers and plants, and theaters. There are also several areas featuring the visual arts, a music scene, and sports arena, as well as a museum district along 5th Avenue.
An otherwise internationally unimportant location can catch world attention at least for a short time, and on occasion will perhaps be remembered forever. Every international Olympic festival has that potential. World Exhibitions used to have it, too. Today, in addition to country fairs and trade shows, well-attended festivals for movies, music, the visual arts and theater can be found everywhere. These festivals not only appeal to particular audiences but also attract great numbers of visitors and bring in significant revenues from tourism.
Because of the assassination of the Austrian archduke in the last century, Sarajevo is infamous and immortalized forever as being the starting point for World War I. And Pearl Harbor’s attack by the Japanese brought America into World War II. Every small European town that is remembered in association with a concentration camp of the Nazi period (1933-45) is branded forever with an embarrassing image: Dachau, Bergen-Belsen, Auschwitz, and many more. Oklahoma City experienced the worst terrorist attack by one of its native sons. Wherever the G8 (a group of the world’s leading industrial nations) holds a summit these days, all hell brakes loose because the place serves as a focal point for the anti-global sentiments of local demonstrators as well as a media center for those coming to demonstrate or report about the World Trade Organization (WTO) meeting.
When religion acquired temporal power, large estates and wealth, the heads of the religion began to reside in palaces. For example, Chinese emperors, long considered divine beings, lived in the Forbidden City in Peking; and the Dali Lama (before his expulsion from Tibet) inhabited a palace with a thousand rooms. In stark contrast, under the feudal system of serfdom, most of the population lived in a condition of abject poverty that would be considered slavery by today’s standards. Today’s popes and cardinals reside in the Vatican City and other palaces around the world. Historically, there has been a direct correlation between owning the land, which included all plants, animals, and human populations thereupon, and controlling what is now euphemistically referred to as “human resources.”
The French, Russian, Chinese, and other revolutions—including the losing nations of World War I (Austria-Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman empire)—turned the estates of the defeated emperors into public, private, and/or modern corporate properties. Some of these palaces were converted into museums, which house the art collections of their previous owners; others are now inhabited by the new rulers. Today’s Vienna is a gigantic assemblage of historical museums reflective of glorious days gone by. And virtually everything (including the dead bodies of emperors) has become a tourist attraction. Likewise, in its heyday, Venice was very important on many levels; today it is primarily a tourist town facing constant encroachment from rising sea levels.
Religion, politics, and economic endeavors represent not only the governance of territory and people, the longing for spiritual elevation, and the fulfillment of material needs, but also the manipulation of public opinion, a process which requires a certain degree of showmanship and which, in turn, becomes a stage that people pay attention to.
In our global world of info-glut, nothing catches the human imagination more than the colossal and superlative (#4) ARRANGEMENT of architectural constructions. Castles and palaces not only served the purpose of housing the ruling classes, but they also reflected the glorious physical embodiment of the local ruler’s power. These magnificent edifices were designed to maintain a foothold in a particular place and to express prestige, intimidation, and a manifestation of who’s who. In many cultures, phallic symbols are (#18) SIGNs representing male potency, dominance, and fertility. The Tower of London, used in the 11th century primarily for representation and defense, and later as a state prison, today serves as a repository for the Crown jewels. Get it?
Today the headquarters of large multi-national corporations are most often housed in skyscrapers. The race for who has the tallest building and where it is located had an early start with Gothic cathedrals. In Medieval Europe, having an enormous cathedral put a town on the map. There is often a direct relationship between the size of a construction and the power and wealth residing in a certain location. And it is not just the height of its towers (including the media’s broadcast towers) that determines a location’s status, but also the length of its bridges and tunnels, as well as the size of its dams, and the presence of other important infrastructures. The domination of economic power is reflected perhaps most graphically by gigantic constructions in important places worldwide. But over time, the locations for prominent public display of economic power have changed. The European mentality to monumentality shifted in the 20th century to America, and in our day, the beginning of the 21st century, to Asia as well; and because of oil revenues, also to the Middle East. While UNESCO’s (#5) selection of World Heritage Sites (#21)— EVOLUTION (#7) and (#21) LOCATION—is not perfect (political opinion (#11) is part of the vetting process), the list nevertheless serves as an impressive indicator of what different places worldwide have to offer.
22) INTERMENT: Where? What? How?
Premise: Represents changing existence in space; geography; presence, end, absence; layer, covering, clothing; enclosure, interposition, intrusion; structure (relic to tomb); funeral, burial, procession; sarcophagus, gravestone; memorial; requiem.
Concepts dealing with beginning, birth, and cause are on top in the (#1) CREATION condition and here in this section. (#22) INTERMENT is the final stage of everything, including living organisms. It represents the end, death, burial and disappearance, aspects of which are also represented in the section on (#19) COVERING. The concept of interment is usually related to a transformation to another state of existence altogether, and is part of the (#7) EVOLUTIONary process.
In NATURE, we will now consider an (#5) ASSEMBLED (#19) COVERED planet Earth, including the (#4) ARRANGED layers of the atmosphere (such as: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere). The Earth’s structure itself also appears in layers of the Earth crust, its mantle, and the outer and inner core. Of course, there is much more detail to the concept of burial or (#22) INTERMENT than this format permits. But in the scheme of (#7) EVOLUTIONARY (#4) ARRANGEMENT, particularly in the transformation from ORGANIC (#13) to (#17) INORGANIC MATTER, a formation of coal, gas, and petroleum/oil is the result of dead organism, animals, and/or plants. This process is a function of extreme pressure that is continuously exerted over the course of eons, in a time (#10) frame of millions of years.
There are many natural processes related to the issue of burial that are considered in the world of SCIENTIFIC research. In this regard, geological processes (MOTION #12)—among others—can be interpreted in terms of the concept of geological time (#17, #10), in which geologists date (by superposition) the different strata that should be built up in undisturbed sequences. By examining one layer stacked upon another, geologists can piece together a stratigraphic record (#4), and thereby analyze the (#7) EVOLUTION of our Earth. As verified by this method, part of the historic evidence of our planet is actually buried underneath our feet.
The Archean (“ancient age”) existed before there was any life on planet Earth. This was followed by the Proterozoic, or early life, period. Taken together, these periods are known as the Precambrian age, which altogether spans 90 percent of our earthly history. To encompass this development, we have to comprehend an (#4) ARRANGEMENT of (#10) TIME in billions of years. The Hebrew calendar claims to start with the creation of this world less than 6,000 years ago. In 2010 by the Gregorian calendar, Jews were in the year 5771. Because the Christian and Islamic religions descended from Judaism, all three faiths are totally out of whack with modern scientific knowledge when it comes to the circumstances regarding the origination of our world. Time is only one aspect of this ignorance of the scientific evidence.
INTERMENT (#22) in the NATURAL world happens in three different ways. Something is buried in the ground, absorbed by water, or disappears (is absorbed) into the air. For every kind of organism, there is a considerable likelihood that it will be digested (broken down as a food (#13), or energy source) by a predator or microorganism.
The HUMAN practice of handling a deceased person’s body varies widely and is subject to the religious, and/or mental (#11) outlook of a people. Sacred history, political myth, and personal traditions are intertwined with contemporary (#14) CONDUCT, even up into our own time.
Disposal of human remains by fire is the preference of Hindus. Funeral pyres are erected in the holy city of Benares (Varanasi) on the Ganges River (also regarded as sacred), and the ashes of the dead are traditionally poured into the holy river.
For some Buddhists in the Himalayas, the preference is for sky burial, with the corpse being devoured by vultures, to be returned to an eternal existence.
For Jews, the mass murder, in which millions of Jewish people were tortured and killed in the most horrific way during World War II, was declared later (by them) a Holocaust. Ironically, this term is a historical reference to a sacrificial offering of the Hebrews in their sacred scriptures. Following that logic, we might ask a taboo question: Was this mass slaughter an act their God approved of—because the German Nazis were definitely not supreme to Him? Did their God abandon and sacrifice his Chosen people?
For Christians, the crucifixion of Jesus is considered the ultimate sacrifice (key event #9, #8, #7, #10) to save humanity from eternal condemnation. And according to their religious beliefs, the most virtuous persons are martyrs (people killed for their beliefs). Some are considered saints, resulting in the longtime practice of naming holidays, even (#21) LOCATION and churches after them.
In modern times, Muslims worldwide keep up the Judeo-Christian tradition of glorifying martyrdom. And like certain Jews and Christians before them, some (but never all) Muslims believe that nonbelievers should experience capital punishment, especially those Muslims committing apostasy, which is the formal renouncing of their faith.
The Jewish/Christian/Islamic tradition of discarding the physical remains of a human corpse is through burial in the ground. During medieval times in the glory days of Christianity, witches (usually women with a different lifestyle) were first tortured in horrific ways and then burned alive at the stake in a public arena for the entertainment and edification of spectators. For the ancient Hebrews, public punishment for non-conforming behavior (i.e., breaking the laws of Moses) was stoning to death, a religious practice that, while reflected and justified (glorified) in their sacred scriptures, was finally ended. But as of 2012, stoning to death in a public arena is still practiced in some Islamic countries.
POLITICAL systems of every kind create and glorify martyrs and often declare those who died for the cause to be heroes, and later some of these heroes are buried in national cemeteries (#20 SPACE, #21 LOCATION, #22 INTERMENT, #23) IMMORTALITY)
In a theocracy, the sacrifice a person makes is for the dominant religious system. In World War II, Hitler demanded sacrifice for what he called a Third Reich (empire). Churchill asked the English people to defend the British colonial Empire with their lives. America fought and died for the supposed “Free World” (with segregated armed forces of blacks and whites) together with Stalin, whose actual official goal was to implement Soviet domination and lead the working class worldwide to socialism. It is no surprise that a cold war between the two superpowers soon followed. Of course, all of these political motivations and maneuverings are much more complex than this format permits. But for me, one thing is for sure: most dead heroes and martyrs (on the entire political/religious spectrum) would be stunned to learn what our world looks like today—especially how former adversaries have been transformed into allies later on in history!
SCIENCE sees in a corpse the opportunity to do research on the workings of the inner body. The causes of disease can be diagnosed by exploring ancient bodily remains and by researching the lifestyles of our ancestors—their diet, health and methods of disposal for human remains. Autopsy is the postmortem examination of an animal carcass or human body. Excavations into the earth by archeologists have revealed the EVOLUTION (#7) of ancient cultures. By drilling holes and excavating columns of ice in the Antarctic, climatologists are able to analyze its climatic history. Fossil remains hold the most revealing documentation of prehistoric but now extinct organisms.
In our modern ECONOMIC atmosphere, taking care of funeral practices and supplying the implements needed is a business unlike most other economic activities. Religious institutions, municipalities, funeral homes, morgues, stonemasons, landscapers, gardeners, sculptors, and architects are all involved in this final process.
Moreover, the ARTS—including artisans and in combination with RELIGION—lend comfort, enhance the meaning of life, and embellish the burial rituals. These final events can be found in the sacred literature of religions, in classical tragedies, and even in the popular murder mysteries of our day. Eulogies, obituaries, sermons and prayers can function as a kind of art form—for example, when we attend church for a requiem Mass, or hear a musical composition performed in honor of the souls of the dead. The casket, flower display, and other decorations enhance the final service a person receives.
Cemeteries exist for all religious denominations and municipalities and can be designed as beautiful (mostly they are not!), artistic landscapes, often with gravestones, tombs, mausoleums, memorials, and so on. After all, they are situated on the threshold to eternity.
There are certain individuals living in this world whom humanity chooses to remember—great and immortal souls who gave an impetus to human (#7) EVOLUTION and/or development on this planet:
in the arts, literature, philosophy, and the sciences;
in technological advancements, or politics; or
in humanitarian endeavors.
And there are MISFITS who made the world a better place the day they died. As we know, the hero of one group can be the misfit of another. For instance, the founding fathers of of the United States are not generally admired by the Native Americans nor by African Americans because many American leaders of European descent fought against the Indian tribes or were slave holders. And there are hardly any traces of these atrocities in history textbooks because the ultimate strategy used by winners of military conflict is the denial of any burial ground to the defeated leader and his followers since such a place has the potential to turn into the site of a pilgrimage. The disappearance of the remains of both Hitler and Osama bin Laden into an unmarked locations are prime examples.
23) IMMORTALITY: How?
Premise: Represents continuation, life after death; perpetuation, endless duration, eternity, infinity; repute, posthumous existence; battlefield, heroism, enshrinement, memorial, monument, celebrity; stamps, cards, memorabilia; prophets, saints, deities; heritage, sacred tradition, history, biography, legacy, posterity; memorial day; museums.
The most universal predicament of all humanity is our brief, limited-by-time existence in this world. Anyone who has ever lived gets only a glimpse of all there is or was. People who live now or have lived in the later part of history have had a chance to experience a wider range of the entire scope of the world than those who lived in earlier times. Such recent developments as easier travel, scientific research and findings, mass publications, electronic media and, of course, educational systems have enabled broader access to knowledge and are gradually expanding to include a wider spectrum of the world population as time goes by.
But in the final analysis, all people—no matter who they’ve been during their lifetime or what they’ve accomplished—eventually have to die. In the (#1) CREATION condition above, I have written about activities of procreation, in which sexual intercourse can be seen as a pleasant sport to stay fit a little while longer or an obligation to produce descendants, thus enabling the ancestral (#4) ARRANGEMENT, or lineage, to continue. Nothing makes parents feel more accomplished than to perpetuate the family name (and genes) with another new generation. The universal human conflict is that we think something should (could) last forever but in reality nothing does. Much of human (#14) CONDUCT throughout the ages has been directed at giving meaning to someone’s limited (#10) TIME on this planet by leaving a legacy of descendants and/or an inheritance of (#2) AUTHORITY via parenthood to the next generation, or perhaps a title, property, money, and/or other tangible assets.
Here, in this (#23) IMMORTALITY condition, I want to consider the entire ARRANGE-MENT (#4) COVERING (#19) our universe in (#10) TIME and (#20) SPACE, starting with the foremost evidence of the existence and (#7) EVOLUTION of our universe. This evidence, which astronomers (with the help of instruments) work on to decipher, is reflected in the electromagnetic spectrum (#4) and in subatomic (#17) MATTER.
In our own time, the largest instrument in the history of the world is used to analyze the structure of the tiniest particles and their interaction on the subatomic level. This instrument, underwritten by the European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva and known as CERN, is the largest particle physics laboratory in the world. CERN’s main function, the Large Hadron Collider, has a diameter of 27 km. Established in 1954, it was financed by 21 member states and operates with about 2,400 full-time employers. It has hosted 10,000 visiting scientists from 103 nations representing 608 universities. Only very few scientists have immortalized themselves by receiving Nobel Prizes for their achievement in the discovery of subatomic particles.
In the world of SCIENCE, anyone who discovers (#1, #23) something that advances the search for “scientia” (Latin for “knowledge”) about our universe has a chance at immortality. For instance, Aristotle, Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes, Mendel, Plank and many others have been immortalized as icons in the world of ideas and knowledge. Newton was an authority (#2) on physics; Darwin, on evolution as put forth in his book, “On the Origin of Species”; Wegner, on tectonic plates; Schliemann, on archaeology, as the father of this branch of science; and Einstein, on physics, as detailed in his Theory of Relativity. Hubble is immortalized in Hubble’s Law, the Big Bang model.
With their enormous capacity for sharing consciousness, HUMAN beings became aware and developed oral (#21) LOCATION and, later, written language in the form of pictographs, letters, SIGNatures (#18), writing, and numbers. This knowledge and the concomitant use of symbols, in turn, EVOLVED (#7) into literature, art, mathematics, architecture, engineering, and landscaping. COVERING (#19) is the habitat. All of these developments impacted the habitat and therefore left evidence of a specific cultural style. The vestiges (remains) of these various cultures carried a message for that particular TIME (#10) and also for later generations, leaving a multitude of iconic role models.
To be somebody, here and now, in a HUMAN social setting, a person has to do something—that is, for example, to become educated, perform in a job, make a living, raise a family, and so forth. To have an eternal existence, to be remembered for a long, long time after you have died, you have to accomplish or discover something that no one else ever accomplished or discovered before. Leaving an imprint in the never-ending (#4) EVO-LUTIONARY (#7) ARRANGEMENT (#4) is what is termed human progress. And such progress sets an (#9) IMPORTANT precedent for humanity—one which later generations may seek to follow.
There is a great variety of circumstances covering modern living for a human being. These circumstances are commonly categorized as financial, political, religious, educational, recreational, etc. All such arenas of human activities are established in traditional institutions, which are (#5) ASSEMBLAGE which have within themselves an (#2) AUTHORITATIVE (#4) ARRANGEMENT, requiring some kind of ORDERly (#6) CONDUCT (#14). On the other hand, everything humans do is constantly being redefined, improved, and changed. And the names of certain originators and pioneers of progress will be remembered (#11) for as long as humanity exists. However, there are no records regarding the identities of those early homo sapiens who originated or discovered other significant and even more essential innovations such as the first words and, later, languages; the first tools, the first clothing, the first knowledge of how to use fire. Although their names have been forgotten over the ensuing millennia, their contributions to human development remain immortal.
The first evidence of life on Earth is established in fossilized plants and animals that have left permanent traces of their existence. Most of these organism were already extinct before the arrival of the human species.
Some of the oldest clues (#18) of human (#7) EVOLUTION are found in INORGANIC (#17) MATTER—namely, stone tools, and other artifacts—about two million years ago. Europe’s megalithic structures give testimony to burial practices that, of course, inform us about the state of MIND (#11) of our prehistoric ancestors. Cave paintings some 35,000 years old found in Chauvet, France suggest that these depictions were more than mere decoration, but rather perhaps a background for rituals. Stonehenge in England (3,000 BC to 2,000 BC) appears to have been a place of sun worship, especially at the time of the solstices.
One monumental innovation that all religions have in common originates in a MINDset (#11) which assumes that the entire universe and everything in it exists on two (#2), dualistic and opposed levels: the natural domain and the supernatural domain. Adherents of this mindset consequently believe that every human being has or is a physical body made of flesh, which at the same time contains a nonphysical spiritual being, or soul. Although the physical body finally dies, the soul and/or spirit will live forever. There are people who claim to have had an out-of-body experience in their lifetime but came back to re-inhabit their physical bodies. Others practice spiritualism and claim that they are able to communicate with the spirits of the dead.
Another universal issue we find in this section on (#22) INTERMENT is the common belief that burial can also involve a ritual to glorify martyrs, saints and heroes, who will—by virtue of their exalted status—live on forever.
What makes the different religions unique is the diverse ways they have of dealing with the same issue: immortality. Hindus and Buddhist believe in reincarnation and that there will be many life times (with the possibility of even a non-human period) before a person can reach a transcendent state of bliss or nirvana. For them, the gigantic divide between humanity and animals found in Western culture is non-existent.
For Jews, Christians, and Muslims, animals are beasts to be sacrificed, and the road to immortality is a one-shot deal. Religious Jews believe that the Almighty (accordingly to them, there is only one Deity) has chosen them, and everybody else is doomed. And this attitude is apparent when, in giving praise or a compliment, even non-religious Jews describe a person whom they admire and respect as a “mensch” (a Yiddish expression meaning a human, not an animal). While Judaism is basically not interested in converting (or “saving”) the gentiles, interestingly enough, the historical Jewish Jesus Christ, was actually considered an attempted or would-be reformer of the Hebrews.
In one way, some Christians and Muslims actually embrace the rest of the world by attempting to become more tolerant and good-hearted because they want to convert everyone else to their belief system. Yet, in another way, both of these religions tend to become even more self-righteous than traditional Judaism, because if you don’t believe in and join their religious organization, you would be better off living somewhere else, and far away. The Deity worshipped by Jewish, Christian, Muslim believers is actually supposed to be identical (only the name is different), but He (yes, its masculine) has changed his alliance on a few occasions: according to Christians at least once, and for Islam twice. Because Muslims are the chosen ones now (if you believe it), nobody else will be saved and they can/will go to hell. Interestingly enough, unbelievers will also live forever, but in a horrific hell.
In countries of Europe and America, where Jews, Christians and Muslims (let’s ignore Al-Qaeda) usually live peacefully side-by-side, a new kind of religious culture is EVOLVING (#7)—one with inter-faith organizations that are attempting to overcome the momentous divides that separate these traditions. Knowledge of my Mega-D model should be a fundamental requirement for anyone seeking to foster inter-faith understanding and tolerance. Even as things stand now, it is no longer an unusual event for the pope, the Dalai Lama, and/or some Jewish big shots (religious and secular) to be seen communicating with one another in the same room.
Throughout NATURAL history, an eternal need or desire to be represented is not merely an issue of religious and individual human concern. Even animals have an innate drive to reproduce, nurture, and, therefore, leave evidence of their existence in an EVOLUTION-ary (#7) chain, which is in itself a remarkable (#4) ARRANGEMENT in the long run. And with animals, there is also an immediate need to leave a mark, or a SIGN (#18)—such as an odor COVERING (#19) a certain SPACE (#20) or habitat, and perhaps a SIGNAL (#18) for a prospective mate.
All around the globe and wherever humanity thrives, there are SIGNS (#18) of cultural activities, identification with someone’s surroundings, as well as consideration of historically (#9) IMPORTANT achievements. The UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) named almost one thousand World Heritage Sites in geographically significant places everywhere. These sites represent highlights of human creative ability and an appreciation of a specific environment. These sites in effect have IMMORTALIZED (#23) the best of both the natural environment and human achievement.
Registered for Copyrights, United States of America. Registration Number TXu 1-866-668 Effective date of registration: July 11, 2013. Helmut Schimpfke E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Edited by Barbara Eubanks E-mail: email@example.com